Using the obtained equivalent resistance
value for description the materials properties of objects with laminated magnetic circuits makes it possible to take into account the effects of eddy currents and corresponding power losses, in the two-dimensional approximation of the magnetic field, both in transitions and in steady-state mode.
On the other hand, utilization of equivalent resistance
in form as in case of Fig.
where [[??].sub.load] is the load equivalent resistance
torque, [T.sub.c]([x.sub.hc]) is the clutch transmitted torque at the half engagement point, [x.sub.hc] is the actuator corresponding position for the clutch engagement joint, and [[eta].sub.g] and [i.sub.g] are the transmission efficiency and ratio separately.
For a traditional conductance probe, as shown in Figure 1(b), [R.sub.x] is an equivalent resistance
of the fluid between the electrodes of the probe, [R.sub.0] is a fixed resistor, and E is an external power supply.
The lamp can be approximated to a resistor that changes with light intensity, for example the RMS voltage of lamp increases almost linearly when the power of the lamp decreases, therefore the lamp behaves as a negative resistance, equally the equivalent resistance
of the lamp is in function of its power   .
By summing the resistance matrices of the serial two-ports, the equivalent resistance
matrix [Re] is obtained and it can be expressed as in the equation (9), below:
where [K.sub.e][[omega].sub.g] is induced electromotive force, [K.sub.x][[omega].sub.g] is equivalent resistance
, and [I.sub.DC] is current of the DC bus.
Heat transfer may occur through all the surfaces, thus the heat transfer analysis is done by building the equivalent resistance
network representing the building heat paths [Incropera and DeWitt 2002].
The test bench presented in the previous section allows to determine the equivalent resistance
for a given geometry.
We extracted the following noise parameters using [F.sub.50] method : minimum noise figure [NF.sub.min], associated gain [G.sub.ass], noise equivalent resistance
[R.sub.n], and output noise temperature Tout at 12 GHz (Figures 9 and 10).
Therefore, the volume of pores becomes a higher proportion; the equivalent resistance
To reduce the complexity of the EV charger model, a simplification proposed in  is adopted here, where the high frequency DC/DC converter and battery load are replaced by an equivalent resistance
. The simplified equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 1.