equivalent

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equivalent

1. Maths
a. having a particular property in common; equal
b. (of two equations or inequalities) having the same set of solutions
c. (of two sets) having the same cardinal number
2. Maths Logic (of two propositions) having an equivalence between them

Equivalent

 

The equivalent of an element is the weight, expressed in carbon mass units, that will combine with or replace one atomic weight of hydrogen or one-half atomic weight of oxygen.

The equivalent of an acid is equal to the acid’s molecular weight divided by its alkalinity (number of hydrogen ions).

The equivalent of a base is equal to the base’s molecular weight divided by its acidity (number of hydroxyl groups).

The equivalent of a salt is equal to the molecular weight of the salt divided by the sum of the charges of the cations or anions forming the salt.

In oxidation-reduction reactions, the equivalent of an oxidizing agent is equal to the quotient obtained as a result of dividing the agent’s molecular weight by the number of electrons obtained by the atom or atoms of the reduced element. The equivalent may vary, depending on the number of electrons accepted by the oxidizing agent.

The concept of equivalent is widely used in the stoichiometric calculations of chemical reactions.

S. A. POGODIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Consider one of the examples from above: {mixture of heads and tails, no mixture of heads and tails} (or equivalently {{HTT, THT, TTH, HHT, HTH, THH}, {HHH, TTT}}) would be a sample set for three flips of a fair coin because all possible outcomes are listed.
Equivalently, necessary and sufficient conditions for optimal insurance coverage can be derived for any suitably modified mean-variance model (Mayers and Smith, 1983; Doherty, 1984; von der Schulenburg, 1986).
i) Co-isometry if TT* = I or equivalently <T*(x), T*(y) > = <TT*(x), y> = <x, y> for all x, y [member of] H.
For another coach, the decisions could possibly be couched as 'bold' or possibly 'brave', especially if the alternatives were generally regarded as equivalently talented, or at least close.
The smallest laptops, the netbooks, are now priced equivalently to the least expensive desktop PCs.
He may be running off what is equivalently a 5lb higher mark today as a result of being 2lb out of the handicap, but if Cape Kimberley and Imjin River fail to replicate the form they have shown at Southwell, this nursery looks wide open.
One of the results is now employers may have to hold onto their records longer than they used to and really look into when staffers were hired, review performance of male and female employees and see if they were paid equivalently.
In experiment after experiment, the psychologists demonstrated that, unlike the hypothetical consumers in economics textbooks, real people don't treat losses and gains equivalently or properly perceive risks, or even understand the basic laws of statistics--with sometimes severe consequences," Lehrer writes.
of Texas at Austin) proclaims the doctrine of Reagonomics to be "Another God That Failed," in reference to the 1949 book of essays by famous ex-communists, in that its theoretical pillars of monetarism, supply-side economics (including tax cuts and deregulation), balanced budgets, and free trade in fact make up nothing more than a governing myth that serve as a mask for the "predator state," which engages in "the systematic abuse of public institutions for private profit or, equivalently, the systematic undermining of public protections for the benefit of private clients.
The use of peat, a diminishing resource, has been criticised by environmental campaigners but growers had previously been unable to find an equivalently productive growth agent.
I'm not expecting anything but should the person concerned be ordered to issue an equivalently humiliating apology then I'd be pleased to provide that for postscript publication.
No other current focused weapon is capable of equal performance with equivalently low collateral damage.