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equivalent

1. Maths
a. having a particular property in common; equal
b. (of two equations or inequalities) having the same set of solutions
c. (of two sets) having the same cardinal number
2. Maths Logic (of two propositions) having an equivalence between them

Equivalent

 

The equivalent of an element is the weight, expressed in carbon mass units, that will combine with or replace one atomic weight of hydrogen or one-half atomic weight of oxygen.

The equivalent of an acid is equal to the acid’s molecular weight divided by its alkalinity (number of hydrogen ions).

The equivalent of a base is equal to the base’s molecular weight divided by its acidity (number of hydroxyl groups).

The equivalent of a salt is equal to the molecular weight of the salt divided by the sum of the charges of the cations or anions forming the salt.

In oxidation-reduction reactions, the equivalent of an oxidizing agent is equal to the quotient obtained as a result of dividing the agent’s molecular weight by the number of electrons obtained by the atom or atoms of the reduced element. The equivalent may vary, depending on the number of electrons accepted by the oxidizing agent.

The concept of equivalent is widely used in the stoichiometric calculations of chemical reactions.

S. A. POGODIN

References in periodicals archive ?
After calculating incremental EPS for each contingent share group, convertible security and group of options, warrants and equivalents, a company's next step is to rank all potential common shares from the lowest EPS effect (most dilutive) to the highest EPS effect (least dilutive), excluding all potential shares with an incremental per share effect greater than basic EPS for income from continuing operations.
In UFE, the court allowed over 90% of the purchased accounts receivable to be treated as cash equivalents under pre-Sec.
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In the example, the convertible preferred shares are common stock equivalents since their effective yield of 5% ($3,500/$70,000) is less than two-thirds of the Aa corporate bond rate (1 0%).
Wheaton is now an intermediate gold and silver producer, with Luismin's 2001 production of 190,600 gold equivalent ounces at a cash cost of US$198 per gold equivalent ounce (98,000 ounces of gold and 5.
A common stock equivalent is a security that, because of the terms under which it was issued, is in substance the same as common stock.
Under the doctrine of equivalents, a patent owner can prove infringement by a product that, although not identical to the invention claimed in the patent, contains elements that are equivalent to the elements of the invention claimed in the patent.
These approvals mark Teva's seventh and eighth product approvals this year, following the approval of Miconazole vaginal cream (a generic equivalent of Ortho's Monistat(R), Atenolol tablets (a generic equivalent of Zeneca's Tenormin(R), Metoprolol tablets (a generic equivalent of Geigy's Lopressor(R), Cimetidine tablets (a generic equivalent of SmithKline Beecham's Tagamet(R), Clotrimazole Topical Solution (a generic equivalent to Schering's Lotrimin AF(R) and Nortriptyline (a generic equivalent of Sandoz's Pamelor(R).
Although there are several generic equivalents of Nortriptyline available, the market for this compound is now estimated to be over $120 million in the United States.
Although there are several generic equivalents of Metoprolol available, the market for this compound is now estimated to be approximately $220 million in the United States.
Although there are several generic equivalents of Atenolol available, the market for this compound is now estimated to be approximately $200 million in the United States.