# error

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## error,

in law: see appealappeal,
in law, hearing by a superior court to consider correcting or reversing the judgment of an inferior court, because of errors allegedly committed by the inferior court.
.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

## Error

in automatic control systems, the difference between the set point and the actual value of the quantity being controlled in a control process. At any given moment, the error can be regarded as the sum of the static error—the error under steady-state conditions—and the dynamic error—the error in a transient response. In the statistical analysis of automatic control systems, the distinction between steady-state and transient errors loses its meaning, and the quality of performance of such a system is evaluated by criteria associated with the probability characteristics of the error. An example of such a criterion is the minimum mean-square error.

## Error

When a number a is taken as the approximate value of a quantity whose exact value is x, the error of a is the difference xa, which is also called the absolute error. The ratio of xa to a is called the relative error. An error is usually characterized by indicating its maximum possible value. The maximum possible value of the absolute error is the number Δ (a) such that ǀxaǀ ≤ Δ(a). The maximum possible value of the relative error is the number δ(a) such that

The maximum values of relative errors are often expressed as percentages. The numbers Δ(a) and δ(a) are taken as small as possible.

If a is the approximate value of x with a maximum absolute error of Δ(a), this fact can be written x = a ± Δ(a). The analogous expression for the relative error is x = a(1 ± δ(a)).

The maximum values of the absolute and relative errors indicate the maximum possible divergence between x and a. In addition to these values, an error is often characterized by the nature of its origin and by the frequency of occurrence of different values of xa. The methods of probability theory are used in this approach to errors.

The error of the result in the numerical solution of a problem is caused by inaccuracies intrinsic to the formulation of the problem and to the means used to solve it. Errors stemming from the inaccuracy of a mathematical description of an actual process—for example, from an inaccurate statement of the original data—are said to be inherent errors. Errors of method arise because of the inaccuracy of the method used in solving the problem. Computational errors are the result of inaccuracies in computations.

When computations are performed, initial errors pass in succession from operation to operation, accumulating and giving rise to new errors. The appearance and propagation of errors in computational work are studied by numerical analysis.

### REFERENCES

Berezin, I. S., and N. P. Zhidkov. Metody vychislenii, 3rd ed., vol. 1. Moscow, 1966.
Bakhvalov, N. S. Chislennye metody. Moscow, 1973.

G. D. KIM

## error

[′er·ər]
(computer science)
An incorrect result arising from approximations used in numerical methods, rather than from a human mistake or computer malfunction.
(science and technology)
Any discrepancy between a computed, observed, or measured quantity and the true, specified, or theoretically correct value of that quantity.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

## Error

Breeches Bible, the
the Geneva Bible, so dubbed because it stated that Adam and Eve made themselves breeches. [Br. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 101]
Cortez
alluded to in a poem by Keats, mistaken for Balboa, as discoverer of Pacific Ocean. [Br. Poetry: “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer”]
Wicked Bible, the
misprinted a commandment as “Thou shalt commit adultery.” [Br. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 102]
seacoast of Bohemia
Shakespearean setting in a land with no seacoast. [Br. Drama: Shakespeare The Winter’s Tale, III,iii]

## error

(1)
A discrepancy between a computed, observed, or measured value or condition and the true, specified, or theoretically correct value or condition.

## error

(programming)
A mental mistake made by a programmer that may result in a program fault.

## error

(3)
(verb) What a program does when it stops as result of a programming error.
References in periodicals archive ?
'Such a doctor is the advocate of patient's wellbeing, and feels responsible for the adverse effects of any medical error. Society must understand the position of doctors and be sympathetic to their situation in case of a medical error,' she noted.
This practice of naming and shaming individuals was very deleterious in understanding what actually went wrong in the case of medical error.
The error of Omission of "the|" before superlative was made by none of the students followed by Omission of "the" before a noun error which was made only by 1 participant having 01 frequency.
(2004), Banlomchon (2005) and Boonyavanch (2002) articles error is one of the most common problem in language learning.
(21) If a trial court acts in excess of its jurisdiction, for example, the resulting error is one that necessarily affects the foundation of the case.
Congress first authorized the math error program in 1926, allowing the IRS to recalculate taxes due to obvious arithmetic errors on tax returns.
The error model annex [4] is a state machine that can be associated with an AADL component or connection, to describe system errors, error behavior, and error propagation [5].
Error Analysis of Airborne Inertial Measurement Unit
Error underreporting also may be related to the lack of a reporting system at an institution or lack of staff awareness that a system for reporting exists (Lederman, Dreyfus, Matchan, Knott, & Milton, 2013; Soydemir et al., 2016).
When the medical errors of the health care professionals were evaluated, there were similarities between physicians and nurses; the most frequent medical error experienced by the physicians was the administration of incorrect medication 45(32.8%), and the most frequent medical error experienced by the nurses was dispensing the incorrect medication 103(40.7%) (Table).
The data from the medication error checklists were imported into Statistical Analysis System (SAS) release 9.3 (USA) for statistical analysis.
Corder (1974) deems that Error Analysis is a useful tool in second language learning for the reason that it reveals the problematic areas of language learning to syllabus designers, teachers, and textbook writers.

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