The eeriness of the lamps glow triggered an error signal
in the visual system.
 Constant number/visual management type--an error signal
is triggered if a specific number of movements or steps are not completed.
For the study, appearing in the journal PLOS ONE, the team examined the brain wave patterns associated with language processing, including a pattern called the P600 -- a kind of "error signal
" that occurs when a person encounters something linguistically unexpected.
Consequently, they can calculate the error signal
as the difference between the training signal and the signal outside the equalizer; allowing the periodic adjustment of the equalizer coefficients.
To calculate the error signal
at the output, the equations below can be used:
The error signal
that has to be minimized adaptively and update the filter tap weights accordingly in the estimation process can be expressed as [mathematical expression not reproducible], here d(n) is the predefined known transmitted training symbol that basically used for channel equalization and error approximation.
* the signal of the direct path of the system is the error signal
obtained from the gyro sensor.
Adaptive baseline block is controlled by the error signal
e(n) to identify whether the input signal is anomalous or baseline using logical operations:
The main function of the FLC is to take the output voltage of the converter and compared with the reference voltage to produce the actuating signal to have the error signal
which will compensate with the set voltage, thus the SRM will now the rated voltage.
D(n) is the required reference signal which is compared with the approximate output of the filter Y(n) to generate error signal
here: P--proportional term; I--integral term; [T.sub.s]--sampling period; e(k)--loop error signal
; u(k)--control variable.
In the paper, the reference signal is updated, iteratively, based on the error signal
and reference signal in previous iteration.