Erythroblast

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erythroblast

[ə′rith·rə‚blast]
(histology)
A nucleated cell occurring in bone marrow as the earliest recognizable cell of the erythrocytic series.

Erythroblast

 

intermediate form of development of a red blood cell, or erythrocyte. In mammals and in man, erythroblasts have nuclei and reproduce themselves, unlike mature erythrocytes, which lack nuclei and are unable to reproduce.

In the lower vertebrates (reptiles, amphibians, and fishes), hematopoiesis takes place in the liver, the kidneys, and partly the blood vessels, where erythroblasts may be found together with mature erythrocytes. During the embryonic development of the higher, or warm-blooded, vertebrates (birds and mammals) and man, erythroblasts are formed in the vessels of the yolk sac and transformed into primary erythrocytes, which soon die. In man, they concentrate after birth in the bone marrow, where they develop from hemocytoblasts; it is only in pathological cases that erythroblasts are found in peripheral blood. The number of erythroblasts and their rate of reproduction increase in anemia. After the erythrocyte level in the blood is restored to normal, erythroblast activity in the bone marrow declines.

References in periodicals archive ?
3] Human genes: KRAS, Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog; ERBB2, v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (also known as HER2).
The following primers were used for this study: (cDNA)UPLPO, 5'-GGCGACCTGGA AGTCCAACT; (cDNA)RPLP0, 3'-CCATCAGCACCAC AGCCTTC; (cDNA)HPRTl, 5'-TTGCTGACCTGCT GGATTAC; (cDNA)HPRT1, 3'-TCTCCACCAATTAC TTTTATGTCC; (cDNA)ERBB2 (v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2), 5'-TGATAGACACCAACCGCTCTC; (cDNA)ERBB2, 3'-GATTGGGCATGGACTCAAAC; (cDNA)ERBB3, 5'-CTCTGGGTTCTCTGCTGGAT; (cDNA)ERBB3, 3'-TGCACCATACCATGTTCCTC; (cDNA)AR (androgen receptor), 5' -GACCAGATGGCTGTCATTCA; (cDNA)AR, 3'-GGAGCCATCCAAACrCITGA.
5] Human genes: ERBB2, v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, neuro/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog (avian) (also known as HER2); EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; KRAS, v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog; BRAF, v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1; ALK, anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase; EML4, echinoderm microtubule associated protein; NPM1, nucleophosmin (nucleolar phosphoprotein B23, numatrin); VCL, vinculin; TPM3, tropomyosin 3; TPM4, tropomyosin 4; KIT, v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog; BRCA1, breast cancer 1, early onset; BRCA2, breast cancer 2, early onset.
10) In 1984, the sequence of v-erbB, an oncogene of the avian erythroblastic leukemia virus, was reported to be extremely similar to that of EGFR.
Although the LOX family has been long considered to include tumor-suppressor genes in mammary epithelial transformation dependent on HRAS (v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) and ERBB2 [v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, neuro/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog (avian)] (also known as HER2 and proto-oncogene Neu), it also promotes cancer metastasis through the induction of neo-ECM formation.
1) ERBB2 is the official name provided by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee for the v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 gene that encodes a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases.
6] Human genes: HER2, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [current HUGO-approved symbol and name: ERBB2, av-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, neuro/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog (avian)]; KRAS, v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog; PIK3CA (formerly known as PI3K), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha.
The results obtained by special studies led to the reevaluation of the original diagnosis as an erythroblastic disorder of undetermined prognostic significance.
Examinations of the variation in FDAcleared tests for the estrogen receptor 1 protein and for HER2 [human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; current name: ERBB2, v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, neuro/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog (avian)], BRAF (vraf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1), and other genes have revealed large interlaboratory and intrapatient discordance (5%-20%).
Unlike the overexpression of the immunotherapy target human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, also known as ERBB2) in breast cancer patients, which is most often connected with an amplification of the v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, neuro/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog (avian) (ERBB2) gene (36), the correlation of EGFR protein levels and gene amplification and their meaning for EGFR immunotherapy response is still controversial (2-4).
3] HER2 is used in this Opinion to refer to the protein encoded by the gene with HUGO-approved gene symbol ERBB2 [v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, neuro/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog (avian)], as HER2 is the name commonly used in practice.