Erythroblast

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erythroblast

[ə′rith·rə‚blast]
(histology)
A nucleated cell occurring in bone marrow as the earliest recognizable cell of the erythrocytic series.

Erythroblast

 

intermediate form of development of a red blood cell, or erythrocyte. In mammals and in man, erythroblasts have nuclei and reproduce themselves, unlike mature erythrocytes, which lack nuclei and are unable to reproduce.

In the lower vertebrates (reptiles, amphibians, and fishes), hematopoiesis takes place in the liver, the kidneys, and partly the blood vessels, where erythroblasts may be found together with mature erythrocytes. During the embryonic development of the higher, or warm-blooded, vertebrates (birds and mammals) and man, erythroblasts are formed in the vessels of the yolk sac and transformed into primary erythrocytes, which soon die. In man, they concentrate after birth in the bone marrow, where they develop from hemocytoblasts; it is only in pathological cases that erythroblasts are found in peripheral blood. The number of erythroblasts and their rate of reproduction increase in anemia. After the erythrocyte level in the blood is restored to normal, erythroblast activity in the bone marrow declines.

References in periodicals archive ?
[2] Human genes: EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; KRAS, kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog; ERBB2, v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2; EML4, echinoderm microtubule-associated protein like 4; ALK, anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase; SEPT9, septin 9; CDKN2A, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A; MET, MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase; CDK6, cyclin-dependent kinase 6; BRAF, B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase.
[5] Human genes: BRCA1, breast cancer 1, early onset; BRCA2, breast cancer 2, early onset; APOE, apolipoprotein E; ERBB2 (formerly HER2/Neu), v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2; CHD7, chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7.
[3] Human genes: KRAS, Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog; ERBB2, v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (also known as HER2).
Target prediction indicated that miR-152 can target v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 3 (ERBB3).
The erythroblastic and megakaryoblastic series show normal maturation and morphology.
The HER2 gene [v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, neuro/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog (avian) (ERBB2; also known as HER2)] [5] is amplified and overexpressed in 15%-20% of primary invasive tumors (13).
Of all the available examples, perhaps HER2/neu (ERBB2 or v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, neuro/glioblastoma-derived oncogene homolog [avian]) testing and subsequent treatment of breast cancer with drugs such as trastuzumab or lapatinib is the archetype.
About 15%-25% of these cases show amplification of the ERBB2 gene [v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, neuro/ glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog (avian); also known as HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)] (2).
(22-26) Investigation into the genetic changes found in human adenocarcinomas has identified amplification of the v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 gene ERBB2 (HER2/neu) in mammary carcinoma.
Although the LOX family has been long considered to include tumor-suppressor genes in mammary epithelial transformation dependent on HRAS (v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) and ERBB2 [v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, neuro/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog (avian)] (also known as HER2 and proto-oncogene Neu), it also promotes cancer metastasis through the induction of neo-ECM formation.
Common antecedent diseases or factors include MDS (for example, refractory anemia with excess of blasts or refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia), myeloproliferative neoplasms (for example, chronic myelogenous leukemia with erythroblastic crisis), (13) and exposure to toxins such as benzene.
[6] Human genes: HER2, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [current HUGO-approved symbol and name: ERBB2, av-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, neuro/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog (avian)]; KRAS, v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog; PIK3CA (formerly known as PI3K), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha.