psoriasis

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psoriasis

(sôrī`əsĭs), occasionally acute but usually chronic and recurrent inflammation of the skin. The exact cause is unknown, but the disease appears to be an inherited, possibly autoimmune disorder that causes the overproduction of skin cells. Psoriasis may occur at any age but is uncommon in children. The characteristic lesion is a scaly "mother-of-pearl" patch, appearing anywhere on the body. Involvement may range from a single plaque to numerous patches that cover most of the skin. A variety of treatments are used for patients with mild to moderate cases. Treatments directed at the symptoms include the application of ointments and exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet (UVB) light. Retinoids help stabilize follicular epithelial cells. Vitamin D analogs and metabolites, although effective in treatment, have side effects. Photochemotherapy (psoralen combined with UVA radiation) is also effective, but increases the risk of skin cancer. Alfacept and other drugs that interfere with T-cell (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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) activation, and etanercept, infliximab, and other drugs that block tumor-necrosis factor are effective in many patients with moderate to severe psoriasis.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Psoriasis

 

a chronic recurrent noncontagious skin disease of man. Neuropsychic traumas and metabolic and endocrine disorders play a part in the development of psoriasis. The disease may also be viral or genetic in nature.

Eruptions may appear anywhere on the skin but generally occur on the elbows, knees, sacral region, and scalp. The disease becomes acute with the appearance of small pink-red papules covered with silvery scales that readily slough off. When the papules are scraped, the scales fall off in small particles, revealing a smooth shiny surface underneath. Further scraping produces small drops of blood. The papules rapidly enlarge, often coalescing to form plaques. This process may be circumscribed, disseminated, or generalized (erythroderma psoriaticum). When the papules and plaques reach a certain size, they stop growing and then harden, shrink, and disappear, leaving depigmented or hyperpigmented spots.

There are thus three stages of psoriasis: progressive (appearance and growth of papules), stationary (stable), and regressive (hardening and disappearance of papules). Sometimes the nail plates are affected, and their surface becomes thimble-like. In some patients, the eruptions are accompanied by swelling and tenderness of the joints (psoriasis anthropathica).

Treatment is effected by administering vitamins A, B1, B6, and B12, tranquilizers, and hormones, by means of ultraviolet radiation and application of paraffin and desquamative and resorbing ointments, and by health-resort therapy.

REFERENCE

Mashkilleison, L. N. Chastnaia dermatologiia. Moscow, 1965. Pages 161–216.

I. IA. SHAKHTMEISTER

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

psoriasis

[sə′rī·ə·səs]
(medicine)
A usually chronic, often acute inflammatory skin disease of unknown cause; characterized by dull red, well-defined lesions covered by silvery scales which when removed disclose tiny capillary bleeding points.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

psoriasis

a skin disease characterized by the formation of reddish spots and patches covered with silvery scales: tends to run in families
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
This MHLW approval is based on efficacy and safety data from the company's Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials, sustaIMM, ultIMMa-1 and IMMspire, evaluating SKYRIZI in Japanese patients with plaque psoriasis, generalised pustular psoriasis and erythrodermic psoriasis, as well as a global Phase 2 study in patients with active psoriatic arthritis.
Erythrodermic psoriasis is an autoimmune condition affecting 3% of the world population, and it can be life threatening (1).
Plaque psoriasis was the most common type of psoriasis, accounting for 85.1% of patients, followed by guttate psoriasis (2.9%), erythrodermic psoriasis (1.7%), and pustular psoriasis (1.0%).
Inclusion criteria were as follows: a) clinical diagnosis of psoriasis vulgaris, erythrodermic psoriasis, arthropathic psoriasis, or pustular psoriasis (palm and plantar only) (17); b) age from 16 to 78 years old of both genders; c) without serious cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, liver or kidney functional damage; d) psoriasis vulgaris patients should not be using systemic medication for the last 3 months but applying topical drugs; erythrodermic psoriasis patients should not be using systemic medication in the last 3 months but applying long-term topical emollients; arthropathic psoriasis patients should be using no drugs; and pustular psoriasis patients (palm and plantar only) should not be using systemic medication but undergoing ultraviolet A irradiation.
Clinical data suggest that retinoids are effective for erythrodermic psoriasis control.
Infectious complications of erythrodermic psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol, 1996, 34, 911-914.
Even their efficacy for pustular or erythrodermic psoriasis is questionable at this time.
Based on the Disease Indication, the psoriasis drug treatment market is segmented into Plaque psoriasis, Guttate psoriasis, Inverse psoriasis, Pustular psoriasis and Erythrodermic psoriasis. In this chapter, readers can find information about key trends and developments in the psoriasis drug treatment market and market attractive analysis based on disease indication type.
Erythrodermic psoriasis (17.2%) was seen in patients with pre-existing psoriasis who gave a history of irregular use of medications or stoppage of all treatment.
Subjects of age 18 years and above with all clinical forms of psoriasis except for pustular and erythrodermic psoriasis were included in the study and patients who were pregnant or breast feeding or receiving disease modifying systemic therapy within 6 weeks from the date of enrolment were excluded.
Methotrexate and compound glycyrrhizin can be an effective alternative therapy in the treatment of erythrodermic psoriasis with bullous pemphigoid (7).
Based on the clinical presentations, it is classified into four groups as follows: psoriasis vulgaris (PsV), arthritic psoriasis, pustular psoriasis (PP), and erythrodermic psoriasis. PP is further divided into two clinical subtypes, namely generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) and localized PP.