Blepharospasm is a tonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle which leads to intermittent or complete closure of the eyelids.1 Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) is bilateral dystonia of orbicularis oculi muscles characterized by spasmodic involuntary eyelid closure in the absence of any other ocular or adnexal cause.23 It is not uncommon to see secondary blepharospasm which is due to an ocular or adnexal disease along with essential blepharospasm in the same patient.4BEB is more common in women (2-3 times) as compared to men and more so in people over 50 years of age.13 Post menopausal women with thyroid dysfunction and those using phenothiazines are more prone to BEB.4
Benign essential blepharospasm is usually misdiagnosed by the general practitioners and the patients are treated with partially effective or ineffective remedies like anxiolytic or sedative agents.
Facial dystonia essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm.
study of patients with benign essential blepharospasm. J
Long-term botulinum toxin treatment of benign essential blepharospasm hemifacial spasm and Meige syndrome.