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essential oils,volatile oilsoils,
term commonly used to indicate a variety of greasy, fluid substances that are, in general, viscous liquids at ordinary temperatures, less dense than water, insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol and ether, and flammable.
..... Click the link for more information. that occur in plants and in general give to the plants their characteristic odors, flavors, or other such properties. Essential oils are found in various parts of the plant body (in the seeds, flowers, bark, or leaves) and are also concentrated in certain special cells or groups of cells (glands). Because of their properties, they are widely used in perfumes, flavorings, and medicines. Their chemical composition differs: A great many, for example, are principally terpenes, compounds of carbon and hydrogen. Others contain aldehydes, ketones, or phenols. Oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen are present in compounds in others. In general, they are complex mixtures. They are obtained from the plant in various ways, depending upon the nature of the part in which they occur—by compression, by distillation with steam, by dissolving the oils out (extraction) or absorbing them, and by pressure and maceration. Among the plants notable for their essential oils are members of the following plant families: carrotcarrot,
common name for some members of the Umbelliferae, a family (also called the parsley family) of chiefly biennial or perennial herbs of north temperate regions. Most are characterized by aromatic foliage, a dry fruit that splits when mature, and an umbellate inflorescence
..... Click the link for more information. (e.g., anise, dill, angelica), gingerginger,
common name for members of the Zingiberaceae, a family of tropical and subtropical perennial herbs, chiefly of Indomalaysia. The aromatic oils of many are used in making condiments, perfumes, and medicines, especially stimulants and preparations to ease stomach distress.
..... Click the link for more information. (cardamom), heathheath,
in botany, common name for some members of the Ericaceae, a family of chiefly evergreen shrubs with berry or capsule fruits. Plants of the heath family form the characteristic vegetation of many regions with acid soils, particularly the moors, swamps, and mountain slopes
..... Click the link for more information. (wintergreen), laurellaurel,
common name for the Lauraceae, a family of forest trees and shrubs found mainly in tropical SE Asia but also abundant in tropical America. Most have aromatic bark and foliage and are evergreen; deciduous species are usually those that extend into temperate zones.
..... Click the link for more information. (cinnamon and camphor), mintmint,
in botany, common name for members of the Labiatae, a large family of chiefly annual or perennial herbs. Several species are shrubby or climbing forms or, rarely, small trees.
..... Click the link for more information. (pennyroyal, peppermint, spearmint, thyme), myrtlemyrtle,
common name for the Myrtaceae, a family of shrubs and trees almost entirely of tropical regions, especially in America and Australia. The family is characterized by leaves (usually evergreen) containing aromatic volatile oils. Many have showy blossoms.
..... Click the link for more information. (clove and eucalyptus), oliveolive,
common name for the Oleaceae, a family of trees and shrubs (including climbing forms) of warm temperate climates and of the Old World tropics, especially Asia and the East Indies.
..... Click the link for more information. (jasmine and lilac), orchidorchid,
popular name for members of the Orchidaceae, a family of perennial herbs widely distributed in both hemispheres. The unusually large family (of some 450 genera and an estimated 10,000 to 17,500 species) includes terrestrial, epiphytic (see epiphyte), and saprophytic
..... Click the link for more information. (vanilla), pulsepulse,
in botany, common name for members of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae), a large plant family, called also the pea, or legume, family. Numbering about 650 genera and 17,000 species, the family is third largest, after the asters and the orchids.
..... Click the link for more information. (acacia and sweet pea), roserose,
common name for some members of the Rosaceae, a large family of herbs, shrubs, and trees distributed over most of the earth, and for plants of the genus Rosa, the true roses.
..... Click the link for more information. (attar of roses and almond), and ruerue,
common name for various members of the family Rutaceae, a large group of plants distributed throughout temperate and tropical regions and most abundant in S Africa and Australia. Most species are woody shrubs or small trees; many are evergreen and bear spines.
..... Click the link for more information. (lemon and other citrus plants).