essentialism


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essentialism

the view that philosophy or science is able to reach and represent absolute TRUTH(S), e.g. the necessary or essential properties, or ‘essences’, of objects. PLATO's theory of ideal forms is an example of essentialism.

Today the term is often a negative one, used by philosophers who oppose essentialism and emphasize the provisional or conventional nature of knowledge (see also CONVENTIONALISM, NOMINALISM, OPERATIONALISM OR OPERATIONISM, RELATIVISM, POSTEMPIRICISM, DECONSTRUCTION, REALISM).

Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
References in periodicals archive ?
Essentialism helped me to see that my increasing stress was due to the fact that I was straddling two different career paths simultaneously instead of prioritizing one over the other.
I take inspiration from the remarkable management thinker Peter Drucker's response (quoted in Essentialism) to the very accomplished psychologist, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, who had asked him to be interviewed for his book on creativity.
By downplaying the potential of their trade and its profitability through these deeply gendered forms of essentialism, they seek to ward off the scrutiny of state officials and the envy of fellow traders, latent dangers to their trading activities.
Locke's essentialism leads to reductionism, the ontology of contemporary science: 'What constitutes a thing is an inner constitution of parts that is independent of any other thing, and from which the properties (qualities and powers) that we experience empirically flow' (p.
Essentialism can help claims professionals better prioritize where and how they spend their time managing the myriad details, projects and people clamoring for their attention -- helping them choose the essential vs.
Essentialism and organicism also serve as clumsy categories for classifying contemporary scholars.
This stance includes both feminist essentialism and feminist care ethics.
Such comparisons grounded in theology between Islam and Christianity not only fuel the perception of a clash of civilization at the popular level but they also add to the rise of essentialism at the academic level.
Psychological essentialism is the belief that natural kinds and social categories possess (often unseen) defining qualities.
They explore the history of the concept, that concept's relationship to Western imperialism, theory in the context of science and technology studies, social science theory, theory as hope for something beyond essentialism, the crises of theory and dilemmas of sociology, political theory vs.
Recognizing the important work done by scholars such as Bonnie Kime Scott to destabilize traditional androcentric accounts of modernism in the European context, Ramanathan proposes that the Third World texts she analyzes are interested in interrogating gendered essentialisms. Interrogation does not necessarily mean rejection, for Ramanathan asserts that these texts present a "studied essentialism," which in Ramanathan's definition "rejects the tenet that we equal our physical or cultural properties ...
Charlotte Witt's treatise, The Metaphysics of Gender, argues that gender essentialism is true, given specific definitions of "gender" and "essentialism".