Kazal pays special attention to Philadelpia's diverse German neighborhoods, which are characterized by different ethnic densities, religious, class and generational concentrations, and group interactions.
German leadership lost its message and audience as hyphenated Americans were no longer welcome in the nation of hundred-percent loyalty: "What began as a suspicion of German Philadelphians as potential spies and saboteurs," Kazal commented, "mushroomed into an assault on any German ethnic expression,"--and this assault spread from east coast to west, from city to town and village throughout the nation.
Students of color demanded better access to higher education, changes in the curriculum, the recruitment of more professors of color, and the creation of ethnic studies programs.
From their origins in California, ethnic studies programs and departments have survived and proliferated throughout the United States.
Today there are more than 700 ethnic studies programs and departments in the United States.
From Paesani to White Ethnics provides a revised framework for understanding the development of ethnic consciousness, its periodization, and its local and international dimensions.
Despite its wide scope, the study's analytical framework is limiting because it relies so heavily on the voices of leaders to explain the transformation of an entire community's ethnic consciousness.
Luconi argues that the prominenti, ethnic leaders, of this generation had the greatest impact on forging, what he terms, "Italianness" and, later Italian-American consciousness.
Because the 1965 immigration reform legislation so changed the ethnic
composition of the majority of newcomers, the tendency has been to focus exclusively on these primarily Latin American, Asian and Caribbean flows while the experience of new waves of "old" immigrant groups, such as the Italians, Portuguese and Greeks, are typically overlooked.
Anagnostou holds that ethnic accomplishment is a privileged metric for the national ranking of ethnicities.
write that a strong ethnic identity can lead to adverse labour market outcomes, providing evidence on the relationship between ethnic identity and labour market outcomes of the immigrants in Europe.
Andersen says that ethnic voluntary organizations play many roles in immigrant communities.