ethnocentrism

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ethnocentrism,

the feeling that one's group has a mode of living, values, and patterns of adaptation that are superior to those of other groups. It is coupled with a generalized contempt for members of other groups. Ethnocentrism may manifest itself in attitudes of superiority or sometimes hostility. Violence, discrimination, proselytizing, and verbal aggressiveness are other means whereby ethnocentrism may be expressed.

ethnocentrism

  1. the attitude of prejudice or mistrust towards outsiders which may exist within a social group; a way of perceiving one's own cultural group (in-group) in relation to others (out-groups). The term was introduced by W. G. SUMNER (1906) and involves the belief that one's own group is the most important, or is culturally superior to other groups. Thus, one's own culture is considered to be racially, morally and culturally of greater value or significance than that of others, and one becomes distrustful of those defined as outsiders. It also involves an incapacity to acknowledge that cultural differentiation does not imply the inferiority of those groups who are ethnically distinct from one's own.
  2. a characteristic of certain personality types. The ethnocentric personality is described by T Adorno et al. (1950) in The Authoritarian Personality (see AUTHORITARIAN PERSONALITY). Initially this study was concerned with the social and psychological aspects of anti-Semitism, but developed into a study of its more general correlates. Adorno et al. were concerned with explaining attitudes towards other ‘out-groups’ in American society, such as homosexuals and ethnic minorities, and maintained that antagonism towards one ‘out-group’ (e.g. Jews) seldom existed in isolation. They found that ethnocentrism tended to be associated with authoritarianism, dogmatism and rigidity, political and economic conservatism, and an implicit anti-democratic ideology. Thus, hostility towards one ‘out-group’ (see IN-GROUP AND OUT-GROUP) was often generalized and projected onto other ‘out-groups’. See also PREJUDICE, DISCRIMINATION, RACISM OR RACIALISM, ATTITUDE, ATTITUDE SCALE.
References in periodicals archive ?
In testing these hypotheses, the highest ranked leadership energizing behavior priorities were identified that either tended to support the GLOBE findings (Hofstede, 1980; Church & Wacalawski, 1999) and the Leadership Substitute Model (Jones & George, 2006) or make leadership action less necessary under a less ethnocentrically clear environment.
This position dates at least as far back as Herodotus, Democritus, and the Greek Sophists and later was exemplified in the skeptical writings of Sextus Empiricus, who pointed out that cultures do in fact vary in their rules of conduct; that these rules, in turn, can be discovered to have an empirical origin and are environmentally determined; and, finally, that each culture tends to ethnocentrically imagine that its own codes of behavior are the only "correct" ones, whereas it was obvious to the Skeptics that ubiquitous disagreement about ethical principles clearly proves that no culture is right and nothing is universally true.
Even though Foucault in Discipline and Punish, (1977, 279) operating, rather ethnocentrically, only with the Francophone examples of New Caledonian and Guiana (whose "Devil's Island" was a rival for Australia's, that is to say Tasmania), minimizes transportation as a part of the carceral discourse, transportation can still be said to exemplify carcerality.
The vulnerability of minority and disadvantaged groups in particular leads them to demand allegiance over candor from social scientists who are members of those groups and who may even ethnocentrically identify with this demand.
However, building up a new independent statehood ethnocentrically proved to be painful for Estonians.
At best, such explanations are ethnocentrically biased, nationalistic, and pseudoscience.
Ablaze in green and gold bicentennial colours, the school was ethnocentrically Anglo .