ethnography

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ethnography:

see anthropologyanthropology,
classification and analysis of humans and their society, descriptively, culturally, historically, and physically. Its unique contribution to studying the bonds of human social relations has been the distinctive concept of culture.
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; ethnologyethnology
, scientific study of the origin and functioning of human cultures. It is usually considered one of the major branches of cultural anthropology, the other two being anthropological archaeology and anthropological linguistics. In the 19th cent.
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ethnography

the direct observation of an organization or small society, and the written description produced. Often the method of observation involves PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION. The ethnographic method (sometimes also referred to as FIELDWORK) is a basic method in SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY, It is also a method used in some areas of sociology, e.g. COMMUNITY STUDIES. Usually a researcher gathers data by living and working in the society or social setting being researched, seeking to immerse himself or herself as fully as possible in the activities under observation, but at the same time keeping careful records of these activities.

In anthropology, an emphasis on the importance of the ethnographic method was initially associated with the functionalist school, which encouraged an analysis of the internal structure and function of single societies rather than historical or comparative studies (see FUNCTIONALISM). However, there is no inherent reason why ethnographic and comparative approaches should not be seen as complementary or why ethnography should simply be associated with one theoretical school.

ethnography

[eth′nä·grə·fē]
(anthropology)
The branch of ethnology that deals with the description of races or ethnic groups, without attempting to analyze or compare them.
References in periodicals archive ?
For this reason, many of the basic assumptions (Lee & DeVote 1970) that had motivated the long term ethnographical research on the Ju/'hoansi (Wilmsen 1989a) were questioned.
These models are based on ethnographical observations and suggest the existence of a relationship between hunting expenditure (animal types, time of hunting, distance, etc.
Less direct ethnographical data such as legends, the memories of older people and reminiscences of ritual also throw some light on earlier practice.
In this paper I compare the results of two inquiries; one primarily archaeological and concerned with the medieval use of irrigation and granaries in the hinterland of Murcia, Islamic Andalucia; and the other primarily ethnographical, conducted in the Marghane/Awnil area of Morocco which throws light on the function of the fortified granary and its role in society.
The volume is a welcome addition to the growing body of comparative ethnographical studies of the region, rich in detail and reinforcing that evocative trope of the 'flow of life' in eastern Indonesia which has engaged research perspectives in recent years.
Ethnographical comparisons reveal the use of Typha for different purposes all over the world particularly in non-European countries from China to Australia (Gott 1999) and North America.
This book by Tim O'meara is a welcome contribution to the ethnographical and development literature on Western Samoa.
Many archaeological and ethnographical studies have demonstrated the importance of bifacial tools for agricultural societies (e.
Emphasis on particular elements of the selected debates is equally partial, with Hiatt often electing 'to place ethnographical questions within a wider context, usually theoretical and historical, but occasionally political and contemporary' (p.
As an academic researcher I adopted an anthropological approach and an ethnographical methodology in the research underlying my books (Holtorf 2005: 9; 2007a: 13).
Ethnographical collection from the Kiwai District of British New Guinea in the National Museum of Finland, Helsingfors (Helsinki): a descriptive survey of the material culture of the Kiwai people.
Study of the "colonial scientists" who followed the army and immediately began justifying German colonial hegemony through ethnographical definitions of Slavs as primitive and dependent might reveal the beginnings of a longer-term evolution from Leute to Folk in the German mindscape of the east.