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see anthropologyanthropology,
classification and analysis of humans and their society, descriptively, culturally, historically, and physically. Its unique contribution to studying the bonds of human social relations has been the distinctive concept of culture.
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; ethnologyethnology
, scientific study of the origin and functioning of human cultures. It is usually considered one of the major branches of cultural anthropology, the other two being anthropological archaeology and anthropological linguistics. In the 19th cent.
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the direct observation of an organization or small society, and the written description produced. Often the method of observation involves PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION. The ethnographic method (sometimes also referred to as FIELDWORK) is a basic method in SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY, It is also a method used in some areas of sociology, e.g. COMMUNITY STUDIES. Usually a researcher gathers data by living and working in the society or social setting being researched, seeking to immerse himself or herself as fully as possible in the activities under observation, but at the same time keeping careful records of these activities.

In anthropology, an emphasis on the importance of the ethnographic method was initially associated with the functionalist school, which encouraged an analysis of the internal structure and function of single societies rather than historical or comparative studies (see FUNCTIONALISM). However, there is no inherent reason why ethnographic and comparative approaches should not be seen as complementary or why ethnography should simply be associated with one theoretical school.

Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000


The branch of ethnology that deals with the description of races or ethnic groups, without attempting to analyze or compare them.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Fassin shares his experience in his fieldwork and how those experiences lead to the second component of ethnography, which is writing.
The articles in this special issue showcase the possibilities of ethnography. The collection is masterfully introduced by Werth who articulates ethnography's enduring contributions to scholarship on crime, il/legality, and its governance.
There are some fascinating papers here, illustrating many of the issues raised by public ethnography. There is attention to both components of that phrase: to what 'going public' can involve, as well as to what is the distinctive contribution of ethnography.
Big data analytics and, of late, AI (artificial intelligence) enable analysis of unstructured data at a scale like never before.This is digital ethnography. Web True.0 builds an elegant, strong case for it in a highly accessible, storytelling way, narrated over some nine chapters, each with a different case history.
180), Kullberg offers a thorough intellectual history of literature and ethnography in Martinique that combines analyses of well-known texts and figures with others that she rescues from critical neglect.
Apart from hitting the reader from time to time with unexpected quotes from the higher authorities of postmodernism that are not always woven well into the text, this work is an important contribution that raises new perspectives in the history and ethnography of the Chinese diaspora in Borneo and beyond by approaching it through the anthropology of collective trauma processing.
-Commemoration ceremony held in Ankara Ethnography Museum on November 10,1939, just one year later since the modern Turkey's founder Mustafa Kemal AtatE-rk.
The most moving part of this ethnography is the dilemma that two mothers share with us about how they are strongly educated and encouraged by the medical professionals to limit or not breastfeeding due to their HIV status, while they are living in a culture where not breastfeeding means you are a "bad mother." Their situation is further complicated by the culture of decisions, such as feeding, being made by their mother-in-law or mother who may not have a clue about her medical condition, and the family would be stigmatized if anyone found out.
was the last newsroom ethnography (Domingo, 2014): In his study, David Ryfe (2012) convincingly suggested that to understand journalism today, we must look beyond the newsrooms struggling to innovate, putting them in the context of the many other social actors (bloggers, activists, media start-ups) that collectively shape the news.
Starting with the inner rooms of the house (an ethnography of rooms as she calls it), the author takes us on a journey outwards 'through concentric circles' of movement and place making.
critiques the traditionally hegemonic position heavily guiding disciplinary ethnography, one that has its adherents to view their accounts as the exclusive authorities on phenomena irrespective of the narratives created by the actual research subjects.
This article introduces institutional ethnography as a valuable approach to sociological inquiry for health and nursing research in New Zealand.