diagnosis

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diagnosis,

determination of the nature of a disease or ailment. A clinical diagnosis is based on the medical history and physical examination of the patient: it may be confirmed with X-Rays, CAT Scans (Computerized Axial Tomography), MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), and other laboratory tests. Diagnosis by physical examination includes ascertaining temperature, pulse, and blood pressure and involves the use of palpation, to detect enlarged organs and other abnormalities; tapping, to delineate some of the internal organs; and listening, to interpret sounds from organs such as the heart and lungs. Instruments that facilitate physical examination include the sphygmomanometer for blood pressure; the stethoscopestethoscope
[Gr.,=chest viewer], instrument that enables the physican to hear the sounds made by the heart, the lungs, and various other organs. The earliest stethoscope, devised by the French physician R. T. H. Laënnec in the early 19th cent.
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 for listening to the heart and lungs; the ophthalmoscopeophthalmoscope
, instrument used for examining the inner structure of the eye. The device was invented by the German physiologist H. L. F. von Helmholtz in 1851. His model consisted of three plates of glass pressed together and mounted on a handle at a 45° angle.
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 to examine the inner eye; and the laryngoscope and bronchoscopebronchoscope
, long, tubular instrument with a light at the tip that is inserted through the windpipe and bronchial tubes to examine these structures. By passing other instruments through it, foreign bodies and obstructions can be removed and tissue or secretions may be removed
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 to view the larynx, windpipe, and other air passages. Recent innovations in electronics have made it possible for any of these devices to be fitted with video cameras and lights, so that the interior of the body can be viewed on video monitors and recorded on videotape for future reference. In diagnostic tests, the blood, urine, tissues, and other excretions and secretions of the body are examined for evidence of chemical imbalance, cellular change, and the presence of pathogenic organisms. Exploratory surgery and the insertion of visual equipment through a small incision (e.g., laparoscopy and arthroscopy) may be used to assist in diagnosis.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Diagnosis

 

in medicine, the process of identifying a disease and designating it with accepted medical terminology— that is, making a diagnosis. The science of the methods of making a diagnosis is called diagnostics.

Diagnosis is based on the thorough and systematic study of a patient that includes (1) anamnesis—purposeful questioning concerning the complaints, history of the condition, and history of the life of the patient, (2) physical examination (inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation), testing of visual and auditory acuity and reflexes with special devices, testing of the range of movements in the joints, and so forth; (3) analysis of the results of laboratory tests of blood and various excretions (feces, urine, sputum, pus, and so forth); X-ray examinations: graphic methods—recording on paper or film the movements of the heart (cardiography), blood vessels (sphygmography), and so forth; electrodiagnostic studies (electrocardiography, electroencephalography, and so forth); endoscopy—inspection of the interior of certain organs (for example, the stomach and urinary bladder) using special optical instruments; biopsy—the study of small pieces of tissue excised from the patient or of material obtained by puncturing bone marrow and lymph nodes with a special needle. In certain diseases, important diagnostic data are obtained with radioactive isotopes (radioisotopic diagnosis). Bacteriological and serological (using serum) methods are very important in diagnosing infectious and allergic diseases. In order to make a diagnosis in difficult cases, physicians sometimes resort to an exploratory operation, so that they may examine and study local changes directly.

In order to identify a disease, it is generally necessary to find a fairly large number of symptoms and combinations of symptoms and to determine their intensity. Since different diseases may share the same symptoms (for example, headache, fever, vomiting), differential diagnosis is used. The starting point is usually the selection of the most characteristic, prominent, and positively known (pathognomonic) symptom. The disease is compared with others that show a similar symptom. Less commonly, the diagnosis is made by excluding similar diseases.

To avoid the errors caused by insufficient medical experience, especially in diagnosing rare diseases, attempts were made starting in the 1950’s to make diagnoses with the help of computers, using symptoms (detected by the physician) whose significance in various diseases was calculated beforehand. Development of this approach (cybernetic medicine) is impeded by the difficulties encountered in evaluating symptoms quantitatively and by the imperfect classification of diseases.

In making a diagnosis, the physician attempts to find the cause of the disease and its accompanying diseases and complications and to assess the severity of the functional disorders (functional diagnosis). He also takes into account the particular physiological characteristics of the patient. Thus, a diagnosis must reflect the characteristics that distinguish a given patient from other patients with the same disease. An early, accurate, and maximally concrete diagnosis facilitates well-considered and efficacious therapy and often makes it possible to forecast possible variations in the course of the disease.

A pathologicoanatomical diagnosis is made post-mortem by a specialist (pathological anatomist) who bases his diagnosis on the study of the findings of the autopsy and on the chemical and microscopic analysis of tissues in comparison with the results of studies made while the patient was living. Pathologicoanatomical diagnosis is of value is finding and analyzing inaccuracies in diagnoses made during life; it is also used in forensic medicine.

REFERENCES

Osipov, I. N., and P. V. Kopnin. Osnovnye voprosy teorii diagnoza, 2nd ed. Tomsk, 1962.
Metodicheskie problemy diagnostiki Moscow, 1965. (Collection of articles.)
Brodman, K. “Postanovka diagnoza pri pomoshchi vychislitel’noi mashiny.” In Elektronika i kibernetika v biologii i meditsine. Moscow, 1963. Page 361. (Translated from English.)
Diagnosis in veterinary medicine is divided into general and special diagnosis. The objective of the former is preliminary familiarization with the sick animal (anamnesis); determination of its external appearance; study of the skin, integuments, subcutaneous tissue, superficial lymph nodes, and visible mucosae; and measurement of the body temperature. Special diagnosis involves an examination of the internal organs, blood, urine, gastrointestinal contents, cerebrospinal fluid, and so forth. Inspection, palpation, percussion, probing, catheterization, roentgenoscopic and graphic studies (roentgenoscopy, roentgenography, sphygmography, electrocardiography, and so forth) are among the clinical methods used. Diagnostic allergic tests (tuber-culinization, malleinization, and so forth) are used extensively to diagnose infectious and parasitic diseases. Bioassays (inoculation of living tissues and live animals) are necessary in diagnosing a number of infectious diseases (for example, anthrax, brucellosis, tuberculosis, botulism, and tularemia).

REFERENCE

Klinicheskaia diagnostika vnutrennikh boleznei sel’skokhoziaistvennykh zhivotnykh, 2nd ed. Edited by V. I. Zaitsev. Moscow, 1964.

V. I. ZAITSEV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

diagnosis

[‚dī·əg′nō·səs]
(computer science)
The process of locating and explaining detectable errors in a computer routine or hardware component.
(medicine)
Identification of a disease from its signs and symptoms.
(systematics)
In taxonomic study, a statement of the characters that distinguish a taxon from coordinate taxa.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

diagnosis

1. Med
a. the identification of diseases by the examination of symptoms and signs and by other investigations
b. an opinion or conclusion so reached
2. Biology a detailed description of an organism, esp a plant, for the purpose of classification
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Logistic regression model and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed on the RigiScan™ data with final etiological diagnosis as the outcome.
decompensation in order to make the early etiological diagnosis and introduce antibiotics that cover the most common Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as early as possible.
Gomez de La Camara, "Causes of ischemic stroke in young adults, and evolution of the etiological diagnosis over the long term," European Neurology, vol.
There was no significant correlation between the etiological diagnosis and the gender of the children.
In this approach the practitioner is helped by understanding common medical presentations rather than an assumption that a symptom may be part of a specific ID etiological diagnosis. This helps the practitioner relate care to his or her training and experience even if they have not had specific training with this population.
Accurate standardisation of laboratory tests for the detection of CPV-2 is required to provide veterinary scientists with an effective tool for a precise etiological diagnosis of CPV-2 infection.
For ethical reasons, we were unable to carry out brain biopsy in patients with a presumptive diagnosis of neurotoxoplasmosis in order to reach a definite etiological diagnosis. However, there was no positive result for real time PCR among control patients, which ultimately confirms the excellent test specificity (100%).
Therefore histopathological examination is necessary for etiological diagnosis. Histopathologically tuberculous infection can be identified by typical caseation along with granuloma of epitheloid cells and Langhans giant cells but it cannot differentiate whether infection is due to mycobacterium tuberculosis or atypical mycobacteria.
With the availability of effective therapies for HSE, the virology laboratory has acquired a role of primary importance in the early etiological diagnosis of this condition, which is essential to ensure appropriate patient treatment and management.
Shows overall Aetiological Diagnosis of Collapse on Bronchoscopy in terms of different Tissue Sampling Techniques Etiological diagnosis Number of patients Percentage Malignancy 17 56.66% Tuberculosis 10 33.33% Foreignbody 2 6.66% Inconclusive 1 3.33% Table 2 Fob True True False False specimen positive negative positive negative Washings 8 10 -- 10 Brushinqs 14 10 -- 4 biopsy 17 10 -- 1 Table 3 Fob True True False False specimen positives negatives positives negatives Washings 10 18 -- -- Brushings 7 18 -- 3 Biopsy 4 18 -- 6 Table 4.
There is still a gap in the knowledge of etiological diagnosis and clinical profile of pleural effusion as there is a limited study in different geographical location.
Frequencies and percentages were determined for age distribution, gender, presenting complaints, etiological diagnosis and HCG stimulation test.