eukaryote

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eukaryote

(yo͞okâr`ē-ōt'), a cell or organism composed of cells that have a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles (mitochondria, chloroplasts; see cellcell,
in biology, the unit of structure and function of which all plants and animals are composed. The cell is the smallest unit in the living organism that is capable of integrating the essential life processes. There are many unicellular organisms, e.g.
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, in biology) and genetic material organized in chromosomes in which the DNA is combined with histonehistone
, any of a class of protein molecules found in the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells. They complex with the DNA (see nucleic acid) and pack the DNA into tight masses of chromatin, which have the structure of coiled coils, much like a tangled telephone cord.
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 proteins. Eukaryotes are contrasted with the prokaryotes (see MoneraMonera,
taxonomic kingdom that comprises the prokaryotes (bacteria and cyanobacteria). Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms that lack a membrane-bound nucleus and usually lack membrane-bound organelles (mitochondria, chloroplasts; see cell, in biology).
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). Eukaryotes formed through the merger of prokaryotes, which predate them in the fossil record by some 2 billion years. In the five-kingdom system of classificationclassification,
in biology, the systematic categorization of organisms into a coherent scheme. The original purpose of biological classification, or systematics, was to organize the vast number of known plants and animals into categories that could be named, remembered, and
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, the eukaryotes have comprised the taxonomic kingdoms ProtistaProtista
or Protoctista
, in the five-kingdom system of classification, a kingdom comprising a variety of unicellular and some simple multinuclear and multicellular eukaryotic organisms.
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, FungiFungi
, kingdom of heterotrophic single-celled, multinucleated, or multicellular organisms, including yeasts, molds, and mushrooms. The organisms live as parasites, symbionts, or saprobes (see saprophyte).
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, Plantae (see plantplant,
any organism of the plant kingdom, as opposed to one of the animal kingdom or of the kingdoms Fungi, Protista, or Monera in the five-kingdom system of classification.
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), and Animalia (see animalanimal,
any member of the animal kingdom (kingdom Animalia), as distinguished from organisms of the plant kingdom (kingdom Plantae) and the kingdoms Fungi, Protista, and Monera in the five-kingdom system of classification.
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). In a recently proposed system they are called the eukarya and classified as an overarching group (domain) above the kingdom level.

Eukaryote

 

a single- and multiple-celled plant and animal organism in which the body of the cell, in contrast to the cells of a prokaryote, is differentiated into the cytoplasm and the nucleus enclosed by a membrane. The most recent system of the organic kingdom gives the eukaryotes the rank of a superkingdom (including the animal, mushroom, and plant kingdoms) and juxtaposes them to the superkingdom of the prokaryotes.

The genetic material of the nucleus of eukaryotes is organized into chromosomes that are capable of duplication and distribution through mitosis between daughter cells. The molecular basis of the chromosomes is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is closely associated with histones and other proteins. In most eukaryotes there is a typical sexual process, with the fusion of cell nuclei during fertilization and reduction division during meiosis. The cytoplasm of the cells of eukaryotes, in contrast to that of prokaryote cells, has a complex system of membranes that form an endoplasmotic network, the Golgi apparatus, the mitochondria, and other organoids.

eukaryote

[yü′kar·ē‚ōt]
(biology)
A cell with a definitive nucleus. Also spelled eucaryote.
References in periodicals archive ?
The contribution of large eukaryotes and eukaryotic nanoflagellates to the bulk remained very low.
The report reviews Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E (eIF-4E) targeted therapeutics under development by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources
Although ECIS technology has not been previously applied in the clinical microbiology laboratory, it has been shown to be effective in monitoring the cytotoxic effects of viruses on eukaryotic cells, and unpublished experiments in our laboratory have shown that it is capable of detecting bacterial induced cell damage.
This symbiosis explains the origin of mitochondria, but what about other eukaryotic structures, most notably the nucleus?
The final destination requires an exploration of symbioses within Deep Time, leading to the conclusion that modern ecosystems may not provide the best reference point for eukaryotic cell evolution.
The origin of the more complicated eukaryotic cell type has been partially elucidated by the now widely-accepted endosymbiont theory, which posits that two of the major membrane-bound compartments of eukaryotic cells--mitochondria, the energy-making organelles, and chloroplasts, the organelles where photosynthesis occurs in plant cells--were formed from ancient bacteria that invaded the cytoplasm of an ancient proto-eukaryotic cell and eventually took up residence in that cell.
Wade is head of the Eukaryotic Transcriptional Regulation Section.
Other species are our kin: all eukaryotic organisms from plants to insects and humanity itself, are thought to have descended from a single ancestral population that lived about 1.
2, contains 270 additional public genomes and nine new JGI genomes (four finished, five drafts), bringing the total number of genomes in IMG to 618 (318 bacterial, 25 archaeal, 15 eukaryotic, 260 bacterial phage).
In subsequent chapters, the emphasis is placed on bacterial pathogens; only 1 chapter is dedicated to viruses and none to eukaryotic pathogens (only the introductory paragraphs in chapter 1) or to nonpathogenic microorganisms of any kind.
Six specialized centers will receive $10 million each over five years and will focus on the most difficult proteins, such as eukaryotic protein structures.