eutrophication

(redirected from eutrophicated)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.

eutrophication

(yo͞otrō'fĭkā`shən), aging of a lake by biological enrichment of its water. In a young lake the water is cold and clear, supporting little life. With time, streams draining into the lake introduce nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, which encourage the growth of aquatic organisms. As the lake's fertility increases, plant and animal life burgeons, and organic remains begin to be deposited on the lake bottom. Over the centuries, as silt and organic debris pile up, the lake grows shallower and warmer, with warm-water organisms supplanting those that thrive in a cold environment. Marsh plants take root in the shallows and begin to fill in the original lake basin. Eventually the lake gives way to bogbog,
very old lake without inlet or outlet that becomes acid and is gradually overgrown with a characteristic vegetation (see swamp). Peat moss, or sphagnum, grows around the edge of the open water of a bog (peat is obtained from old bogs) and out on the surface.
..... Click the link for more information.
, finally disappearing into land. Depending on climate, size of the lake, and other factors, the natural aging of a lake may span thousands of years. However, pollutants from man's activities can radically accelerate the aging process. During the past century, lakes in many parts of the earth have been severely eutrophied by sewage and agricultural and industrial wastes (see water pollutionwater pollution,
contamination of water resources by harmful wastes; see also sewerage, water supply, pollution, and environmentalism. Industrial Pollution
..... Click the link for more information.
). The prime contaminants are nitrates and phosphates, which act as plant nutrients. They overstimulate the growth of algae, causing unsightly scum and unpleasant odors, and robbing the water of dissolved oxygen vital to other aquatic life. At the same time, other pollutants flowing into a lake may poison whole populations of fish, whose decomposing remains further deplete the water's dissolved oxygen content. In such fashion, a lake can literally choke to death.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

eutrophication

[yü·trə·fə′kā·shən]
(ecology)
The process by which a body of water becomes, either by natural means or by pollution, excessively rich in dissolved nutrients, resulting in increased primary productivity that often leads to a seasonal deficiency in dissolved oxygen.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Cyanobacteria in a eutrophicated reservoir in a semi-arid region in Brazil: dominance and microcystin events of blooms.
Though, a drastic reduction of the external nutrient loading (Jeppessen et al ., 2008) and the use of watershed best management practices (Mustapha, 2009) seems to be the best way of restoring eutrophied lakes, the use of these methods in restoring eutrophicated shallow tropical African reservoirs might be impossible because of the tightly coupled interactions between the reservoir, watershed and stakeholders use of the reservoir and its watershed for various purposes most especially agricultural activities which are the main sources of nutrients run-off into the reservoir.
state of eutrophicated lake and biotic response from algal community
Noxious blooms are an increasingly important problem also in eutrophicated freshwaters, where mainly blue-green algae (cyanoprokaryota) form nuisance, and often toxic, blooms.
The use of free water surface constructed wetland to treat the eutrophicated waters of lake L'Albufera de Valencia (Spain).
This tributary eutrophicated by urbanization is widely used for refuge and feeding by many fish species (Gama & Halboth 2004; Tavares-Dias, Neves, Pinheiro, Oliveira, & Marinho, 2013; Pantoja et al., 2016).
In the study area, the constant supply of eutrophicated water from the lagoon, evidenced by the high concentrations of DIN, P, and Si (10.3 [micro]M N[O.sub.2.sup.-]+N[O.sub.3.sup.-], 2.2 [micro]M N[H.sub.4.sup.+], 3.7 [micro]M P[O.sub.4.sup.3-], and 19.2 [micro]M Si[O.sub.2]), when compared with the reported values in the adjacent bay area (4.2 [micro]M N[O.sub.2.sup.-]+N[O.sub.3.sup.-], 0.2 [micro]M N[H.sub.4.sup.+], 0.8 [micro]M P[O.sub.4.sup.3-], and 4.9 [micro]M Si[O.sub.2]) (Olivos-Ortiz et al., 2008), can support high phytoplankton abundance (until 1.6 x [10.sup.5] cells/L around CS) similar to values reported in Santiago bay locations far from continental runoffs, with values of 1.5x[10.sup.2] to 2.2x[10.sup.3] cells/L (Quijano-Scheggia et al., 2013).
Growth of Mytilus edulis in net bags transferred to different localities in a eutrophicated Danish fjord.
SRP concentrations were similarly elevated, particularly at sites C and E, indicating that the Jaboque wetland system is greatly eutrophicated. SRP levels far exceed the 0.01 mg [L.sup.-1], value at which eutrophic conditions occur.
Also nutrients input and trophic state increase from west to east, and the gulf is considered one of the most eutrophicated basins in the Baltic Sea area (HELCOM, 2003; Pitkanen et al., 2007).
Productivity and nutrient uptake by the vegetation in relation to the flow of eutrophicated ground water.