eutrophication


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eutrophication

(yo͞otrō'fĭkā`shən), aging of a lake by biological enrichment of its water. In a young lake the water is cold and clear, supporting little life. With time, streams draining into the lake introduce nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, which encourage the growth of aquatic organisms. As the lake's fertility increases, plant and animal life burgeons, and organic remains begin to be deposited on the lake bottom. Over the centuries, as silt and organic debris pile up, the lake grows shallower and warmer, with warm-water organisms supplanting those that thrive in a cold environment. Marsh plants take root in the shallows and begin to fill in the original lake basin. Eventually the lake gives way to bogbog,
very old lake without inlet or outlet that becomes acid and is gradually overgrown with a characteristic vegetation (see swamp). Peat moss, or sphagnum, grows around the edge of the open water of a bog (peat is obtained from old bogs) and out on the surface.
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, finally disappearing into land. Depending on climate, size of the lake, and other factors, the natural aging of a lake may span thousands of years. However, pollutants from man's activities can radically accelerate the aging process. During the past century, lakes in many parts of the earth have been severely eutrophied by sewage and agricultural and industrial wastes (see water pollutionwater pollution,
contamination of water resources by harmful wastes; see also sewerage, water supply, pollution, and environmentalism. Industrial Pollution
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). The prime contaminants are nitrates and phosphates, which act as plant nutrients. They overstimulate the growth of algae, causing unsightly scum and unpleasant odors, and robbing the water of dissolved oxygen vital to other aquatic life. At the same time, other pollutants flowing into a lake may poison whole populations of fish, whose decomposing remains further deplete the water's dissolved oxygen content. In such fashion, a lake can literally choke to death.

eutrophication

[yü·trə·fə′kā·shən]
(ecology)
The process by which a body of water becomes, either by natural means or by pollution, excessively rich in dissolved nutrients, resulting in increased primary productivity that often leads to a seasonal deficiency in dissolved oxygen.
References in periodicals archive ?
Cultural eutrophication in the mid-Atlantic region stimulates high levels of algal growth in these shallow bays, accelerating seagrass loss, increasing system respiration and oxygen stress, and altering biogeochemical processes (e.g., sediment anoxia, accumulation of deleterious hydrogen sulfide, and nutrient cycling) that are detrimental to ecosystem structure and function.
Data offered by Eesti Polevkivi were the basis to study emissions from mines into water and air according to impact categories like acidification, terrestrial eutrophication and ecotoxicity.
The main aim of the present study was to identify the phytoplankton taxa whose wet weight biomass shows a good relationship with enhanced nutrient concentrations and therefore may prove indicative for the assessment of eutrophication.
Eutrophication is one of the serious kinds of water pollution
They also know that there is a link between the amount of nutrients in a lake and the amount of algae such that when these levels become too high, it is the process of eutrophication, and is an indicator of the lake's poor health.
Globally, Asia would be at the greatest risk of eutrophication due to projected increases in fertilizer use and anticipated precipitation increases.
Minimize and address the impact of oceans eutrophication through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels.
'Normally, we think of food production as the culprit behind eutrophication. However, if we're trying to fully understand and control eutrophication, ignoring the contributions from other consumer products such as clothing and furniture means that we're only addressing a part of the cause of pollution,' said lead author Helen Hamilton from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
Eutrophication occurs when too many nutrients are present in the water, usually as a result of runoff from the surrounding land.
However, it underwent more aggravated eutrophication in the mid-1980s because of the rapid industrial and agricultural development and excessive population growth [27].
These reductions would be between 13-24.8 percent, 9.8-21.3 percent and 5.7-17.6 percent for GHG, eutrophication and land use, respectively.