even


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even

1. 
a. (of a number) divisible by two
b. characterized or indicated by such a number
2. Maths (of a function) unchanged in value when the sign of the independent variable is changed, as in y = z2
3. even money
a. a bet in which the winnings are the same as the amount staked
b. (as modifier): the even-money favourite

Even

 

(also Lamut), the language of the Evens (Lamut). According to the 1970 census, Even is spoken by approximately 7,000 people along the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk and in neighboring regions. Together with Evenki and Negidal, it belongs to the northern group of the Manchu-Tungus languages. It has three dialect groups: eastern, western, and central. The eastern group includes the Ola dialect, on which the literary language is based.

Even is an agglutinative language in which grammatical relationships are expressed by the addition of suffixes to word stems. The Ola dialect distinguishes 18 consonants and up to 20 vowel phonemes, including ia and ie (phonemes that incorporate a glide whose articulation resembles that of the phoneme’s primary, syllabic, element). Even exhibits palatal and labial vowel harmony. There are 13 nominal (noun) cases and a ramified system of possessive forms, which express personal, reflexive, and alienable possession.

Verbs are classified by conjugational features as verbs of action, verbs of state, and inchoative verbs. There are more than 15 aspects and six voices of the verb, as well as six participial forms, eight forms of adverbial participles, and negative and interrogative verbs. The attribute precedes the modified word and agrees with it in number and case. The vocabulary of the western dialects shows the influence of Yakut and Yukaghir, and the dialects of Kamchatka have undergone the influence of Koriak; Russian words began entering the Even language in the 17th century.

A Latin writing system was devised in 1931 and was used until 1936, when a Cyrillic alphabet was introduced.

REFERENCES

Tsintsius, V. I. Ocherk grammatiki evenskogo (lamutskogo) iazyka, part 1. Leningrad, 1947.
Tsintsius, V. I., and L. D. Rishes. Russko-evenskii slovar’ (s prilozheniem grammaticheskogo ocherka). Moscow, 1952.
Benzing, J. Lamutische Grammatik mit Bibliographie, Sprachproben und Glossar. Wiesbaden, 1955.

E. A. KHELIMSKII

References in classic literature ?
I know it is"--replied her mother seriously, "or after such a warning, I should be the last to encourage such affection, or even to be pleased by it.
I did not even choose to dismiss summarily any of the opinions that had crept into my belief without having been introduced by reason, but first of all took sufficient time carefully to satisfy myself of the general nature of the task I was setting myself, and ascertain the true method by which to arrive at the knowledge of whatever lay within the compass of my powers.
That same night the clerk entered upon a bout of drunkenness so consistent as to surprise even his intimate acquaintance.
cried Danglars, grasping him by the arm, "or I will not answer even for your own safety.
Thus did they fight as it were a flaming fire; it seemed as though it had gone hard even with the sun and moon, for they were hidden over all that part where the bravest heroes were fighting about the dead son of Menoetius, whereas the other Danaans and Achaeans fought at their ease in full daylight with brilliant sunshine all round them, and there was not a cloud to be seen neither on plain nor mountain.
I could see that the whole thing was a vain and unreasoning pursuit; and what, at the first glance, seemed to me the ugliest feature in this mob of roulette players was their respect for their occupation--the seriousness, and even the humility, with which they stood around the gaming tables.
Myself, and all the passengers indeed, joined with great unanimity in this view of the matter; for our burdens were rich in many things esteemed precious throughout the world; and, especially, we each of us possessed a great variety of favorite Habits, which we trusted would not be out of fashion even in the polite circles of the Celestial City.
There are strange things in front of us--how strange we cannot at present even guess.
After this, Ludwig, the one genuine hero among Mr Swinburne's heroes, was killed, sword in hand, in the capture of the city; and the third, Heinrich, who, though not a traitor, had always been tame and even timid compared with his active brothers, retired into something like a hermitage, became converted to a Christian quietism which was almost Quakerish, and never mixed with men except to give nearly all he had to the poor.
Natasha no less proud of her first long dress and of being at a real ball was even happier.
And they were all so nice and friendly and jolly -- even the Pye girls had their merits; at that moment Anne loved all the world.
He thought of these things earnestly, even wistfully, and yet he knew that he could not go.