even

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Related to evener: in favor of, refer to, settled down

even

1. 
a. (of a number) divisible by two
b. characterized or indicated by such a number
2. Maths (of a function) unchanged in value when the sign of the independent variable is changed, as in y = z2
3. even money
a. a bet in which the winnings are the same as the amount staked
b. (as modifier): the even-money favourite

Even

 

(also Lamut), the language of the Evens (Lamut). According to the 1970 census, Even is spoken by approximately 7,000 people along the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk and in neighboring regions. Together with Evenki and Negidal, it belongs to the northern group of the Manchu-Tungus languages. It has three dialect groups: eastern, western, and central. The eastern group includes the Ola dialect, on which the literary language is based.

Even is an agglutinative language in which grammatical relationships are expressed by the addition of suffixes to word stems. The Ola dialect distinguishes 18 consonants and up to 20 vowel phonemes, including ia and ie (phonemes that incorporate a glide whose articulation resembles that of the phoneme’s primary, syllabic, element). Even exhibits palatal and labial vowel harmony. There are 13 nominal (noun) cases and a ramified system of possessive forms, which express personal, reflexive, and alienable possession.

Verbs are classified by conjugational features as verbs of action, verbs of state, and inchoative verbs. There are more than 15 aspects and six voices of the verb, as well as six participial forms, eight forms of adverbial participles, and negative and interrogative verbs. The attribute precedes the modified word and agrees with it in number and case. The vocabulary of the western dialects shows the influence of Yakut and Yukaghir, and the dialects of Kamchatka have undergone the influence of Koriak; Russian words began entering the Even language in the 17th century.

A Latin writing system was devised in 1931 and was used until 1936, when a Cyrillic alphabet was introduced.

REFERENCES

Tsintsius, V. I. Ocherk grammatiki evenskogo (lamutskogo) iazyka, part 1. Leningrad, 1947.
Tsintsius, V. I., and L. D. Rishes. Russko-evenskii slovar’ (s prilozheniem grammaticheskogo ocherka). Moscow, 1952.
Benzing, J. Lamutische Grammatik mit Bibliographie, Sprachproben und Glossar. Wiesbaden, 1955.

E. A. KHELIMSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
was located in Carroll, Iowa, just a few miles north of Templeton, where they produced a line of wooden ladders, a large number of horse-hitch items (including a new 6-horse evener) and replacement parts.
The frame, beaters, levers, steel eveners and seat were green, while the wheels were yellow.
The beaters were improved for a more even spread, and a steel pole and eveners were standard equipment.
In order to hitch nine horses, Alan also needed appropriate eveners. He used some he had and bought others to create the appropriate equalizing-hitch.
I've enclosed a photo of a set of eveners (or doubletrees) for a team of horses or mules.
One disadvantage of this 2-row is that the eveners sit so high that the line of draft is really high, which makes it harder for horses to pull."
Even pulling was assured by a chain-and-pulley system to the eveners; pulling was done from the axle.
"Eveners, singletrees and other wood parts I usually have lying around, or else they're pretty easily made or modified to be correct," he says.
White Horse makes a non-hydraulic sulky plow as well, along with conventional steel eveners, and a rope-and-pulley hitch system that eliminates the need for heavy eveners between each team in a multiple hitch.
Horse harness, eveners and trees are displayed high on one wall, while log chains, hand tools (carpenter and mechanic) adorn another.