Different solutions extract K from soils via exchange reaction
and/or mineral dissolution (Kong et al.
In the present study, bentonite clay (BT) was modified with a cationic surfactant by using cation exchange reaction
to modify its surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic; thus making it a better adsorbent for the removal of pollutants from contaminated water.
During leaching, the solid sample is chemically analyzed every hour, acquiring the REO in different periods, to analyze each phase of the ion exchange reaction
in the leaching process.
This trend is similar with Okagbue , and it described that the decrease in maximum dry density is attributed by the agglomeration and flocculation of clay particles through cation exchange reaction
, leading to occupy larger space as well as reducing the weight: volume ratio.
The [sup.18]F-labeling can be realized by the simple [sup.18]F-[sup.19]F isotope exchange reaction
on an ammoniomethyl-trifluoroborate (AmBF3) group without further drying of fluoride-18 ion and HPLC purification.
Since medium conditions under which the functional groups of the anion exchanger transformed from the [Cl.sup.-] to the Cu[Cl.sub.4.sup.2-] form have not yet been studied, it is worthwhile to determine the reaction medium composition which ensures quantitative ion exchange reaction
. This is a prerequisite for a high CuO content in the end product obtained after alkalization of the reaction medium.
For example, Li and Zhong  have inserted [Sn.sup.2+] and [Pb.sup.2+] in titanate nanotubes via ion exchange reaction
and these nanomaterials were applied in photocatalysis using visible light for dyes degradation.
This trend is similar to that found by Kaniraj and Havanagi ; they described that the decrease in the maximum dry density is attributed to the agglomeration and flocculation of clay particles through cation exchange reaction
, leading to the occupation of a larger space as well as reducing the weight: volume ratio.
Finally, the OH and Cl exchange reaction
generated [beta]-chloropropanoic acid (Scheme 2; see (9) and (10)) and its activation energy was 188.14 kJ/mol and 34.54 kJ/mol.