training

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training

(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.

Training

 

in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.

REFERENCES

See references under PRUNING FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS.

B. P. ANZIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Physical role, general health, social functioning, and emotional role aspect of the SF-36 score were significantly increased after exercise training in the TASE group, while after the MASE training there was the tendency to be increased in physical functioning (P = 0.09) and general health (P = 0.08).
Supervised structured aerobic exercise training (SSAET) programme, routine medication, and dietary plan were interventions in the experimental group, while patients in the control group were treated by routine medication and dietary plan for 25 weeks at 3 days per week.
The 12-week aerobic exercise training was applied to those participants who passed the GXT.
Therefore, nowadays the exercise training is thought to be a non-pharmacological strategy to reduce incidence of hypertension in susceptible individual.
Our study investigated the effect of exercise training on body composition change in women.
Randomised controlled trials and controlled trials of aerobic exercise training in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fractions (HFrEF) were included.
As addressed by two articles in this special issue, exercise training is a potential countermeasure that stimulates immune function, perhaps limiting or delaying the age-associated decline in immune competence, also referred to as immunosenescence.
With very large effect sizes (1.6<d<2.1), significant differences between groups were observed at baseline (p < 0.05), 3- and 6-weeks (p < 0.05), but not after 8-weeks (p > 0.05) of aerobic exercise training on all secondary variables (Figure 3).
In addition, exercise training promotes a reduction in ANG II, an increase in Ang-(1-7) and subsequent decrease in sympathetic activity and HR (2,7,30).
To our best of knowledge, this study was the first one which conducted two models of endurance exercise training using wistar rats to investigate the left ventricular catecholamine responses to a bout of LAT test.
In addition to exercise training, patients in one of the above groups listened to their favourite music for 30 minutes every day.
Increased muscle mitochondria are largely responsible for the increased resistance to fatigue and health benefits ascribed to exercise training. However, very little attention has been given to the likely benefits of increased brain mitochondria in this regard.

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