training

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training

(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.

Training

 

in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.

REFERENCES

See references under PRUNING FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS.

B. P. ANZIN

References in periodicals archive ?
The effects of endurance exercise training on ambulatory blood pressure in normotensive older adults.
Interestingly, a consistent definition for the classification of exercise intensity as low, moderate, or high does not seem to exist between study protocols in the literature; therefore, we report a low-to-moderate exercise training protocol and attempt to relate it to similar protocols.
Our results confirm that exercise training can improve function and lessen dyspnea as previously reported (3,49).
Aerobic exercise training can reduce oxidative stress by enhancing antioxidant defense mechanisms that include antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase [16].
The researchers suggested that moderate exercise training is associated with reduced Leptin.
We kept training frequency (5d/wk) and duration (60 min/d) constant and modified training intensity since we were interested in whether increased training stress brought about by aerobic exercise training affected the adiponectin.
That recommendation was made on the basis of an earlier analysis of the data showing that the combination of weight loss and exercise training provided greater improvement in physical function and reduction in physical frailty than did either intervention alone (N.
However, exercise training alone in the absence of weight loss had no effect on insulin sensitivity in the 52-week-long clinical trial.

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