During this process, adenosine-5'-diphosphate-ribosyl (ADP-ribose) moiety of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is transferred to eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (EF-2) which inactivates the EF-2 and ultimately inhibits protein synthesis.6,7 Exoenzyme
S, coded by exoS gene, is an ADP-ribosyltransferase that modifies eukaryotic proteins by disturbing the Ras-mediated signal transduction pathway.8 Elastase B, coded by lasB gene, isazinc metalloprotease that destroys proteins involved in immune systems such as cytokines.9,10 The gene AlgD encodes alginate which is required for biofilm formation and protection from antibiotics and host immune response.11
isolates (%) Alginate algD 60 (98) Elastase B lasB 60 (98) Exotoxin A toxA 49 (80) Exoenzyme
S exoS 20 (33) Exoenzyme
U exoU 20 (33) Pyocyanin 53 (87)
This bacterium regulates the production of different exoenzymes
by secreting AHLs, including N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-O-C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxooctanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-O-C8-HSL) (Jones et al., 1993; Pirhonen et al., 1993; Cha et al., 1998; Smadja et al., 2004; Chatterjee et al., 2005; Liu et al., 2008).
Screening of Exoenzymes
. The potential of the algae associated bacteria to produce extracellular enzymes was determined by agar diffusion method .
are aided by antiphagocytic properties of exoenzyme
S, extracellular slime, and outer membrane lipopolysaccharides.
Bell et al., "Different domains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme
S activate distinct TLRs," The Journal of Immunology, vol.
The consequence of this can become either a decrease in catabolite repression or activation of synthesis and/or exoenzyme
secretion, for example, by the mechanism of the substrate-specific induction [26-28].
The implications of exoenzyme
activity on microbial C and N limitation in soil: a theoretical model.
Quorum sensing may inhibit or activate pathogenesis, antibiotic production, exoenzyme
production, and attachment by beneficial bacteria within coral tissues and on surfaces.
Of particular note among these genes is the increased expression of ENPP, an exoenzyme
known to enhance experimental metastasis and angiogenesis, and the down-regulation of many genes (EMP2, DCN, FMOD, LUM, COL1A1) involved in cell-to-cell interaction and the assembly of extracellular matrix.
It is an exoenzyme
that releases maltose by hydrolyzing from the non-reducing ends of the dextrins generated by AA.
EPA bioaccumulation test method and other standard sediment bioassays such as the amphipod lethality, sea urchin fertilization, Microtox solid-phase and bacterial exoenzyme
tests, which are currently recommended by Environment Canada for sediment assessment.