When the cross correlation between the oil and fat type expenditure levels are analysed after controlling all exogenous variables
within the system, the uncontrollable factors which affect the system have a negative correlation coefficient between butter expenditure level and margarine-vegetable oils expenditure level (I = -0.
The purpose of this analysis was to observe the direct effects of the two unobserved exogenous variables
, knowledge and attitude, on the unobserved endogenous variable, practice (Table3).
VaR forecasts produced through traditional approaches, such as historical simulation, exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA), GARCH, and TARCH methods, are compared to the traditional CARR model and to the GARCH and TARCH models that include range-based volatility as an exogenous variable
A recursive system is considered a better approximation than a single-equation describing FDI (as in 3) in terms of the additional two exogenous variables
that enter the deflation equation (as in 2), thus replacing deflation as an exogenous variable
2% of total variance of OE can be explained by three exogenous variables
which are (SHRM, and EA).
Therefore, a separate model is estimated in which debt is not considered as an exogenous variable
, in order to compare government expenditure multipliers with and without controlling for debt.
Road factor, which is found to be predominant exogenous variable
in Lee et al.
Government support, perceived risk, and education are exogenous variables
Following the exclusion restriction, in the last column of the table, the exogenous variable
affecting the participation is distance only.
It implies that the exogenous variable
r does not affect the sign of [OMEGA].
Drawing on recent scholarship on global governance, environmental politics, and international negotiations, and on my observations as a past delegate to G-20 negotiations, I identify the principal conditions that will need to be met; namely, unilateral state leadership, or leadership from a coalition of states, which is mobilized by an exogenous variable
to shift the behavior of these actors.
Table 4 presents the results of one, two, and three-month ahead forecasts of the futures price using a VAR model with the spot price as an exogenous variable