# expansion

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Related to expansionary: Expansionary Fiscal Policy

## expansion,

in physics, increase in volume resulting from an increase in temperature. Contraction is the reverse process. When heat is applied to a body, the rate of vibration and the distances between the molecules composing it are increased and, hence, the space occupied by the body, i.e., its volume, increases. This increase in volume is not constant for all substances for any given rise in temperature, but is a specific property of each kind of matter. For example, zinc and lead undergo greater expansion in a one-degree rise in temperature than do silver or brass. Since solidssolid,
one of the three commonly recognized states in which matter occurs, i.e., that state, as distinguished from liquid and gas, in which a substance has both a definite shape and a definite volume.
have a definite shape, each linear dimension of the solid increases by a proportional amount for a given temperature increase. The amount that a unit length along any direction of a substance increases for a temperature increase of one degree is called the coefficient of linear expansion of the substance. Most liquids also expand when heated. However, since liquids do not have a definite shape, it is the expansion of their volume as a whole that is relevant rather than the increase in a linear dimension. The amount of expansion that a unit volume (e.g., a cubic centimeter or a cubic foot) of any substance undergoes per one-degree rise in temperature is called its volume coefficient or coefficient of cubical expansion and is listed as a property of that substance. The coefficient of linear expansion can be calculated by dividing the coefficient of cubical expansion of the substance by three. When the amount of expansion of a given length of a substance has been determined experimentally, the linear coefficient is calculated by dividing the total amount of expansion by the product of the original number of length units and the number of degrees of rise in temperature. Gases also exhibit thermal expansion. The coefficient of expansion is about the same for all the common gases at ordinary temperatures; it is 1-273 of the volume at 0°C; per degree rise in temperature. The Kelvin, or absolute, scale is based upon this behavior (see Kelvin temperature scaleKelvin temperature scale,
a temperature scale having an absolute zero below which temperatures do not exist. Absolute zero, or 0°K;, is the temperature at which molecular energy is a minimum, and it corresponds to a temperature of −273.
). Charles's law concerning the expansion of gases states that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature (see gas lawsgas laws,
physical laws describing the behavior of a gas under various conditions of pressure, volume, and temperature. Experimental results indicate that all real gases behave in approximately the same manner, having their volume reduced by about the same proportion of the
). Liquids differ from each other as do solids in their expansion coefficients. Water, unlike most substances, contracts rather than expands as its temperature is increased from 0°C; to 4°C;; above 4°C; it exhibits normal behavior, expanding as the temperature increases.

## expansion

[ik′span·shən]
(electronics)
A process in which the effective gain of an amplifier is varied as a function of signal magnitude, the effective gain being greater for large signals than for small signals; the result is greater volume range in an audio amplifier and greater contrast range in facsimile.
(mathematics)
The expression of a quantity as the sum of a finite or infinite series of terms, as a finite or infinite product of factors, or, in general, in any extended form.
(mechanical engineering)
Increase in volume of working material with accompanying drop in pressure of a gaseous or vapor fluid, as in an internal combustion engine or steam engine cylinder.
(physics)
Process in which the volume of a constant mass of a substance increases.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

## expansion

The increase in length or volume of a material, or a body, caused by temperature, moisture, or other environmental condition.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

## expansion

1. Maths
a. the form of an expression or function when it is written as the sum or product of its terms
b. the act or process of determining this expanded form
2. the part of an engine cycle in which the working fluid does useful work by increasing in volume
3. Physics the increase in the dimensions of a body or substance when subjected to an increase in temperature, internal pressure, etc.
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
--Macroeconomic Performance and Policy Management: -1 notch, to reflect expansionary policies (fiscal, monetary, salary, quasi-fiscal) and a stabilised currency that are supporting growth at the cost of high fiscal and external deficits, which continue to erode policy buffers and pose risks to headline macroeconomic stability.
Thus, if a party that governs in the expansionary phase of the business cycle and promotes pro-cyclical fiscal policies were to govern during the ensuing contractionary phase as well, its image would be seriously dented.
Increasingly binding fiscal constraints might force the next government to reverse some of the expansionary policies this government is likely to announce.
This will result in (1) expansionary policy (increased budgetary spending in absolute terms) sustaining for the next few years, and (2) fiscal deficits getting progressively lower.
Within Saudi market, all the market focus is on 2018 budget, expected to be announced on December 19,2017, and market expectations of an expansionary budget has translated into traction on laggard sectors, like cement - wherein the stocks increased by an average of 8 per cent over the past week .
Fiscal policy remains on an expansionary course, while the monetary stance has tightened.
In other words, not only will tighter monetary policy meant to tame the economy diminish Trump's expansionary efforts, but the chair of the central bank has cautioned that the president-elect's efforts should be put on hold&nbsp;and saved for the possibility of another recession.
The tenuous hope for a positive impact from expansionary US fiscal policy has been replaced by renewed concerns of another taper tantrum,' Citi said.
Despite this expansionary budget, rising development expenditure and all costly social programmes that will certainly boost growth, general balances would be mastered and the budget deficit lowered from 5.7% in 2016 to 5.4% in 2017.
"Growing labor force participation, higher average hourly wages and new job offerings in recent months have eased fears about a potential recession and will encourage firms to ramp expansionary plans for the rest of the year."
When public sector debt is on a sustainable path, a country is more resilient to adverse shocks: If a shock hits, governments have the scope to raise deficits to let automatic stabilizers operate or even to engage in expansionary fiscal policies, as was done during the financial crisis in 2009.
Our paper analyzes the effects of firm characteristics during expansionary and contractionary monetary policy environments on different measures of firm profitability and price multiples.

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