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expatriation, loss of nationality. Such loss is usually, although not necessarily, voluntary. Generally it applies to those persons who have renounced nationality and citizenship in one country to become citizens or subjects of another. According to U.S. law, for example, a citizen who becomes naturalized in a foreign state is automatically expatriated. In addition, expatriation occurs when a naturalized citizen resides in his native land for two years or elsewhere outside the United States for five years, or when any citizen serves in the public employment or military of a foreign state. Prior to 1922 an American woman who married an alien was expatriated, but in that year the Cable Act nullified that provision and stipulated that a woman may retain her citizenship when marrying an alien “unless she makes a formal renunciation of her citizenship.” The United States, in common with other countries, forbids voluntary expatriation in time of war. Expatriation may also occur involuntarily, as when a government chooses to renounce its obligations to individuals who desert in wartime. Such persons are stateless until naturalization under some other government takes place. A more general type of involuntary expatriation is the loss of nationality that occurs with the cession or conquest of a territory. The common law view that one's allegiance cannot be renounced without the state's permission prevailed until 1868 when the United States challenged this doctrine in order to protect its naturalized immigrants against the claims of their native states, which did not recognize the right of subjects to expatriate themselves. Congress declared voluntary expatriation to be “a natural and inherent right of all people,” and announced that the United States would protect its naturalized citizens abroad, even in their native countries. Great Britain abandoned the common-law interpretation in 1870. Many other nations, however, including France and Russia, do not recognize expatriation. The United States at present has treaties operating with most European nations concerning that and other conflicting interpretations of citizenship.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



deprivation of citizenship, voluntary renunciation of citizenship, or the leaving of one’s country through emigration or exile abroad. The conditions and consequences of these acts are defined by the laws of the individual countries, including laws governing citizenship, and by international agreements. The term “expatriation” lacks a precise legal content and is going out of use. It is not used in current Soviet legislation.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In line with career anchor theory, which postulates that individuals need some life experience to discover their career anchor(s) (see Schein 1996), we applied restrictions to our sample; we selected only those expatriates who were at least 25 years of age, i.e., had some life experience and prior expatriation experience.
The three strategic actions, selecting, preparing and developing a return policy, are a road map for a well-planned, organized and effective expatriation program.
tax resident, which ends on the day before expatriation, and 2) the portion during which she was not a U.S.
citizen who is an LPR in at least eight tax years during the period of 15 tax years ending with the tax year of expatriation. Based on Topsnik's 2010 expatriation date, this period began in 1996.
Q: What impact has expatriation had on your family?
(71) The 2010 Terrorist Expatriation Act would have added to the list of expatriating acts "providing material support" to, or "engaging" with, foreign terrorist groups or forces engaged in hostilities against the US.
None of the acts listed above result in expatriation unless committed voluntarily and with the intent to relinquish citizenship.
Un depart volontaire A noter que le responsable de l'Eglise du Nord-Sinai, l'abbe Qozman, a completement rejete et dementi les allegations autour d'une expatriation forcee de la part des autorites pour les coptes de Rafah, pour les transferer vers Al-Ariche.
"Poverty and Expatriation," which depicts unemployment and looking for jobs abroad, placed second, and "Ambition," which discusses the rights of people to hold jobs to improve their living situation, came third.
In addition, potential expatriates face a host of nontax issues, which often include selecting a new country of citizenship, deciding which family members will expatriate, managing the formal expatriation process, and determining whether the expatriate will (or will be able to) come back into the United States.
The changing global job market facilitates international assignments--and with them the expatriation of employees and their families, who must adapt to a new culture while employers and co-workers welcome them and adjust to their arrival.
--To this effect, expatriation could be viewed as a form of training, in which the individual is tested for his or her skill in strategic action, because this individual leaves the country of origin to join the destination organization, establishing new strategic alliances and forms of relationship, and successfully carrying out his or her mission.