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loss of nationalitynationality,
in political theory, the quality of belonging to a nation, in the sense of a group united by various strong ties. Among the usual ties are membership in the same general community, common customs, culture, tradition, history, and language.
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. Such loss is usually, although not necessarily, voluntary. Generally it applies to those persons who have renounced nationality and citizenship in one country to become citizens or subjects of another. According to U.S. law, for example, a citizen who becomes naturalized in a foreign state is automatically expatriated. In addition, expatriation occurs when a naturalized citizen resides in his native land for two years or elsewhere outside the United States for five years, or when any citizen serves in the public employment or military of a foreign state. Prior to 1922 an American woman who married an alien was expatriated, but in that year the Cable Act nullified that provision and stipulated that a woman may retain her citizenship when marrying an alien "unless she makes a formal renunciation of her citizenship." The United States, in common with other countries, forbids voluntary expatriation in time of war. Expatriation may also occur involuntarily, as when a government chooses to renounce its obligations to individuals who desert in wartime. Such persons are stateless until naturalizationnaturalization,
official act by which a person is made a national of a country other than his or her native one. In some countries naturalized persons do not necessarily become citizens but may merely acquire a new nationality.
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 under some other government takes place. A more general type of involuntary expatriation is the loss of nationality that occurs with the cession or conquest of a territory. The common law view that one's allegianceallegiance,
in political terms, the tie that binds an individual to another individual or institution. The term usually refers to a person's legal obligation of obedience to a government in return for the protection of that government, although it may have reference to any
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 cannot be renounced without the state's permission prevailed until 1868 when the United States challenged this doctrine in order to protect its naturalized immigrants against the claims of their native states, which did not recognize the right of subjects to expatriate themselves. Congress declared voluntary expatriation to be "a natural and inherent right of all people," and announced that the United States would protect its naturalized citizens abroad, even in their native countries. Great Britain abandoned the common-law interpretation in 1870. Many other nations, however, including France and Russia, do not recognize expatriation. The United States at present has treaties operating with most European nations concerning that and other conflicting interpretations of citizenship.



deprivation of citizenship, voluntary renunciation of citizenship, or the leaving of one’s country through emigration or exile abroad. The conditions and consequences of these acts are defined by the laws of the individual countries, including laws governing citizenship, and by international agreements. The term “expatriation” lacks a precise legal content and is going out of use. It is not used in current Soviet legislation.

References in periodicals archive ?
The amount of tax due on the value of the trust interest will be adjusted by the amount of tax withholding on or after the expatriation date and prior to receipt of the letter ruling.
expatriation regime, an "expatriate" generally means an individual who relinquishes U.
Perception of Expatriation and Cross-Cultural Adjustment.
Expatriation is planned beforehand: before an employee moves to another country, a checklist is prepared (primarily with a technical focus) of what must be learned, what must be done and what will be used upon the employee's return.
25) It seems not improbable that many of those Chinese who have already chosen to study in the UK may also be attracted to the prospect of living and working abroad some time in the future and they may well choose the UK for their expatriation on the grounds of an existing familiarity and sense of relationship with it.
Since then, he has been the main mover behind such draconian legislation as the Protect America Act of 2007, the Enemy Belligerent, Interrogation, Detention, and Prosecution Act of 2010, and the proposed Terrorist Expatriation Act, which would revoke the citizenship of Americans suspected of terrorism.
In sponsoring the Terrorist Expatriation Act, Sens.
While Zelaya may have been a controversial figure, and the de facto regime has tried to argue that it is operating constitutionally and within the law, governments worldwide quickly and unanimously condemned the military's violent expatriation of the democratically elected president.
Almost 90% of partners in the survey were employed before expatriation.
Consider as well that, in 1868, Congress passed the Expatriation Act.
5/ year and expected duration of expatriation, intentions to adopt British nationality
While repatriation is perceived to be a non-issue for many companies, there is substantial literature on expatriation and the challenges that must be addressed when moving an employee and his/her family to a country with different cultural dimensions and significant social and economic contrasts (Dowling and Schuler, 1990; Klaff, 2002; O'Neil and Kramer, 1995; Tung, 1988).