Laparotomy

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laparotomy

[‚lap·ə′räd·ə·mē]
(medicine)
A surgical incision through the abdominal wall into the abdominal cavity.

Laparotomy

 

a surgical incision in the abdominal cavity. Although laparotomy was even known to ancient physicians, it was seldom used before the introduction of antisepsis and asepsis because of the danger of infection. It provides access to the organs of the abdominal cavity and lesser pelvis and is performed in cases of inflammation and tumors, as well as in cases of stomach wounds and other injuries; it is sometimes used as an independent procedure for diagnostic purposes (celiotomy, or diagnostic laparotomy). It is sometimes combined with thoracotomy.

Laparotomy is performed using a transverse, vertical, or oblique incision. The purpose of the surgical procedure determines the patient’s position on the operating table—completely horizontal or with the head of the table raised or lowered or a bolster placed under the small of the back. Preoperative preparation of the patient and the anesthesia used depend on the nature of the procedure and the patient’s condition. The abdominal cavity is closed by layer-by-layer suturing of the anterior abdominal wall, with insertion of drains if required.

References in periodicals archive ?
Then the patient accepted exploratory laparotomy to make a definitive diagnosis.
Exploratory laparotomy was divided into 4 categories: 1) therapeutic laparotomy, 2) non-therapeutic laparotomy, 3) negative laparotomy (5-9) and 4) damage control surgery.
In the setting of unstable patients US can be the only investigation prior to exploratory laparotomy.
Prior exploratory laparotomy, endometriosis, and a uterus larger than 12 or 16 weeks were significantly more likely to be cited as contraindications to laparoscopic hysterectomy by providers preferring an open approach.
In January 2006 Paulett Pettaway Hall, a 32-year-old mother who had previously undergone gastric-bypass surgery and who presented at Springhill with complaints of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, underwent an exploratory laparotomy at Springhill.
An exploratory laparotomy was performed and the enlarged, thin-walled ruptured mucocele of the appendix was resected.
Accordingly, on February 26, 2006, Kimberly underwent an exploratory laparotomy and had several centimeters of her small bowel extracted-the first of several surgeries to repair the damage, which resulted from the stitching of the bowel.
Being an endemic region, a provisional clinical diagnosis of enteric perforation with subsequent peritonitis was made and the patient was planned for urgent exploratory laparotomy by surgeons.
Surgical consent was obtained and included exam under anesthesia, vaginal replacement of the uterus, cerclage placement or uterine balloon placement, exploratory laparotomy and total abdominal hysterectomy.
An exploratory laparotomy was conducted to examine the caracal's stomach and digestive system by a team of veterinarians from the zoo assisted by Dr Muzhar Iqbal, an internationally renowned surgeon from the Central Veterinary Hospital in Al Wathba.
An exploratory laparotomy through an upper midline abdominal incision revealed a hard, mobile mass causing a complete obstruction in the jejunum.

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