But in the combined exposure group, the Listeria-induced secretion of IL-1[beta] was significantly reduced by DEPs at both exposure doses
and at 3 and 7 days postexposure.
coli, Salmonella, population exposed, exposure doses
, dose and response relationships, dose-response models, and model constants.
The results showed that the exact measured radiant exposure doses
were 2.4J/[cm.sup.2], 4.9J/[cm.sup.2], 9.9 J/[cm.sup.2], 19.8 J/[cm.sup.2], and 39.5 J/[cm.sup.2].
There were no changes in Gray values with the various exposure doses
. With the VistaScan system, similar graphic shapes were shown at all doses and regardless of the presence of the lead plate.
rates to reference organisms reach 1.70-10-1 [mu]Gy [h.sup.-1] at the 95th percentile for soil invertebrates due to the presence of [sup.238]U in soil, and 9.13-10-2 [mu]Gy [h.sup.-1] at the 95th percentile for lichens and bryophytes due to the presence of [sup.232]Th in soil.
There is essentially no variation in the exposure dose
throughout the building.
where [DED.sub.Pb] is daily exposure dose
for lead, Q = 0.37 L/day = 0.37 kg/day (mean quantity of Senna rotundifolia L.
The assessment in this case is the exposure dose
, which is computed from the time series of contaminant concentrations that CONTAM produces:
Mortality curves, PCR analyses, and histopathological analyses demonstrated that abalone exposed to the virus became infected, developed disease, and died, dependent on the exposure dose
. Abalone exposed to the high dose demonstrated 92%-96% mortality, those exposed to the medium dose demonstrated 71%-86% mortality, and those exposed to the dose, showed 44%-58% mortality.
where P is the individual health risk when certain health risk happens, dimensionless; D is exposure dose
per day on body weight unit of non carcinogens pollutants, mg/(kg x d); RfD is reference dose of certain chemical substance with threshold, mg/(kg x d).
The article notes that studies evaluating frequency of exposure and exposure dose
are needed; thus it appears that the researchers did not determine which chemicals the dogs were exposed to, in what quantities, or for how long.
Many of these retrospective reports were subject to self-reporting and/or recall bias, as well as confounders such as lack of information on exposure dose
, type of anesthesia, use of other drugs, maternal age, and smoking.