Expressivity

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Expressivity

 

the phenotypic manifestation of genes. Some genes in animals, plants, and microorganisms are characterized by comparatively constant expressivity; that is, they are manifested more or less equally in all the individuals of the corresponding genotype. For example, all wheat plants homozygous for the gene responsible for the absence of awns develop awnless spikes. Other genes—apparently the majority—are distinguished by changing expressivity. Rabbits and some other animals are known to have a Himalayan-pigmentation gene, which is responsible for black feet, ear, nose, and tail tips against a white or some other light background. However, such coloring appears only when young animals of the Himalayan breed are raised in environments having moderate temperatures. The for of individuals of the same Himalayan genotype becomes entirely white in high temperatures and black in low. This example shows that expressivity is influenced by environmental factors—in this case, the temperature.

Under identical environmental conditions, the expressivity of a gene may depend on the genotypic environment, that is, on the other genes with which the given gene combines to form the genotype. The possibility that stabilizing artificial selection can sometimes affect the extent to which hereditary traits are manifested in the phenotype suggests that modifier genes are involved in the variation of expressivity. Expressivity and penetrance, the principal interrelated indicators of phenotypic variability of gene manifestation, are widely used in phenogenetics, medical genetics, and breeding of animals, plants, and microorganisms.

REFERENCES

Lobashev, M. E. Genetika. Leningrad, 1967.
Timofeev-Resovskii, N. V., and V. I. Ivanov. “Nekotorye voprosy fenogenetiki.” In the collection Aktual’nye voprosy sovremennoi genetiki. Moscow, 1966.

V. I. IVANOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Through essays, poems, and his own story, the author outlines a philosophy of expressive arts therapy involving poiesis, the art of making as a response to the world, arguing that it cannot be reduced to psychotherapy's focus on the past, which holds people back from moving forward.
New Delhi: The beautiful face and expressive eyes of Meena Kumari have been captured in a Google doodle devoted to the late actress on her 85th birth anniversary on Wednesday.
Installing the update will automatically double the AR Emoji's library of expressive stickers that can be accessed directly from the keyboard.
Though projective techniques have a role in occupational therapy, the current investigation focuses on alternative expressive art techniques that can be used by generalist clinicians.
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This is the first study to report an association between hand-held screen time and increased risk of expressive language delay,' Birken added.
Mittal, B., Ratchford, B., and Prabhakar, P., (1990), "Functional and expressive attributes as determinants of brand-attitude", Research in Marketing, vol.
The uniquely expressive exterior of the new Q30 creates a visual dynamism for the newest premium compact in the segment.
Meir Statman, the researcher and professor of finance at Santa Clara University, wrote that investments offer "three kinds of benefits: utilitarian, expressive, and emotional."
More recently, legal scholars have recognized expressive effects as a third mechanism by which law influences behavior.
Yet because compliance is of paramount concern, we should seek to understand all the causal mechanisms that produce it." Causes, rather than reasons for action, are McAdams's assumed unit of analysis, and his stated aim for the book is to show that, in some contexts, an "expressive mechanism causes [sic] more of the compliance we observe than deterrence or legitimacy."