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the phenotypic manifestation of genes. Some genes in animals, plants, and microorganisms are characterized by comparatively constant expressivity; that is, they are manifested more or less equally in all the individuals of the corresponding genotype. For example, all wheat plants homozygous for the gene responsible for the absence of awns develop awnless spikes. Other genes—apparently the majority—are distinguished by changing expressivity. Rabbits and some other animals are known to have a Himalayan-pigmentation gene, which is responsible for black feet, ear, nose, and tail tips against a white or some other light background. However, such coloring appears only when young animals of the Himalayan breed are raised in environments having moderate temperatures. The for of individuals of the same Himalayan genotype becomes entirely white in high temperatures and black in low. This example shows that expressivity is influenced by environmental factors—in this case, the temperature.

Under identical environmental conditions, the expressivity of a gene may depend on the genotypic environment, that is, on the other genes with which the given gene combines to form the genotype. The possibility that stabilizing artificial selection can sometimes affect the extent to which hereditary traits are manifested in the phenotype suggests that modifier genes are involved in the variation of expressivity. Expressivity and penetrance, the principal interrelated indicators of phenotypic variability of gene manifestation, are widely used in phenogenetics, medical genetics, and breeding of animals, plants, and microorganisms.


Lobashev, M. E. Genetika. Leningrad, 1967.
Timofeev-Resovskii, N. V., and V. I. Ivanov. “Nekotorye voprosy fenogenetiki.” In the collection Aktual’nye voprosy sovremennoi genetiki. Moscow, 1966.


References in periodicals archive ?
This book outlines a nature-based approach to expressive arts therapy, providing a theoretical foundation for professionals who use the expressive arts and nature to facilitate learning and promote healing.
Though projective techniques have a role in occupational therapy, the current investigation focuses on alternative expressive art techniques that can be used by generalist clinicians.
There are several theories regarding why expressive writing is an effective therapy.
When the children returned weeks later to retell the story, those who had initially heard it from the flat robot showed a decrease in the length and detail of their retold story, whereas those who heard it from the expressive robot retained the information they had heard.
Narrative expressive writing led to improvements in heart rate and an index of the heart's responses to stress, according to the research by psychology doctoral student Kyle J.
This is the first study to report an association between hand-held screen time and increased risk of expressive language delay,' Birken added.
1990), "Functional and expressive attributes as determinants of brand-attitude", Research in Marketing, vol.
One thing that appears to be unusual about sustainable investing is that the expressive benefit is openly talked about -- and derided in some quarters.
Being relatively new as a field, the expressive effect of law is the least studied and understood among theories on how law affects behavior.
McAdams identifies and exemplifies two expressive functions of law, its coordinating function and its information function.
commercial transactions are not expressive, for instance, but
Here I use the terms evaluative and expressive interchangeably.