Feather samples were categorized according to normal or abnormal appearance (retention of the feather sheaths, hemorrhage within the pulp cavity, fractures of the proximal rachis, midshaft constrictions, and failure of the developing feather to exsheath
isolate JMO71 caused higher mortalities after 9-d because: 1) Heterorhabditis species have smaller range of body lengths and body widths in the IJ (<800 um, and about 29-20 um, respectively) (Nguyen 2010); 2) when in contact with an insect host, the IJs exsheath
the previously retained J2 cuticle and enter the hemocoel through the insect mouth, anus or spiracles or by penetrating the exoskeleton using a buccal 'tooth'-like structure (Bedding and Molyneux, 1981), Monteiro et al.
Extracts of Ananas comosus has been found to be effective against exsheathed
infective larvae of a gastrointestinal nematode, Haemonchus contortus (Hordegen, P., 2006).