In the realm of building foreign exchange reserves to bolster the external buffer
, many independent economists, including the ones who remained associated with the IMF for a long time, termed the program as 'self-serving.
5 pF obviates the need for an external buffer
Although there is little information on these assets, and the liquidity is a notable caveat to the fund's usefulness as an external buffer
, the sheer scale of the holdings (summing to $300bn) is enough to assuage investors," Samba noted.
5% of GDP in 2016, provides some form of external buffer
Finally, Bahrain's net asset international investment position, which stood at 78 per cent of GDP in 2014, provides some form of external buffer
The IMF called for careful phasing in of new external liabilities and strengthening of external buffers
to complement short-term efforts to strengthen external sustainability.