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Related to external fixation: internal fixation


see psychoanalysispsychoanalysis,
name given by Sigmund Freud to a system of interpretation and therapeutic treatment of psychological disorders. Psychoanalysis began after Freud studied (1885–86) with the French neurologist J. M.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a method of preserving the structure of animal and plant cells and tissues through treatment with chemical and physical agents. Fixation is used to obtain medicinal preparations.

Physical techniques include drying and freezing at low temperatures in a vacuum (lyophilization). Specimens may be treated chemically with such reagents as formaldehyde, alcohol, acetone, and osmium tetroxide. Many reagents are used in combination with other substances, such as potassium bichromate, mercuric chloride, and picric acid; such fixatives are usually named after the researchers who proposed them, for example, Zenker’s and Maximow’s fixatives and Flemming’s, Carnoy’s, and Bouin’s solutions. The choice of technique depends on the properties and size of the specimen and the purpose of the study. For example, alcohol fixation is adequate to preserve nucleic acids, but enzyme activity is completely preserved only after lyophilization. Fixation in aldehydes is recommended for electron microscopy. Double fixation is used for better preservation of tissue, that is, primary fixation with an aldehyde fixative and a second fixation with osmium tetroxide.


Roskin, G. I., and L. B. Levinson. Mikroskopicheskaia tekhnika, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1957.
Rukovodstvo po tsitologii, vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A rigid habit developed as a consequence of repeated reinforcement, or of frustration.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. Psychol
a. the act of fixating
b. (in psychoanalytical schools) a strong attachment of a person to another person or an object in early life
2. Chem
a. the conversion of nitrogen in the air into a compound, esp a fertilizer
b. the conversion of a free element into one of its compounds
3. the reduction of a substance from a volatile or fluid form to a nonvolatile or solid form
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Temporary external fixation of the lower extremity: a survey of the orthopaedic trauma association membership.
Another well-described disadvantage of external fixation in the pertrochanteric fractures is postoperative knee stiffness caused by fixation of the fascia lata and vastus lateralis by the distal pins (20).
Pin-site infection remains a dilemma for nurses caring for patients with external fixation because of the lack of available evidence on which to base practice.
External fixation though offers good outcomes but is associated with certain complications.
Anterior fixation typically entails plating or external fixation. Posterior pelvic fixation is typically done with percutaneous SI screws or plating from an anterior or posterior approach, with other options, including transsacral fixation or transiliac bars.
One study17 on external fixation over the tibia presented average time to partial weight- bearing walking as 36 days and to full weight-bearing as 65 days.
After multiple surgical interventions and external fixation of the fracture, he was discharged.
Talking about the most adequate fixation device, it is important to remember that the external fixation in orthopaedic traumatology, although it is now less used than in the past, can be still seen as a remarkable technique even in case of a surgical emergency.
"This is a significant base for understanding the applications of our major products--MizuhOSI spine tables, Orthofix Internal and external fixation, Parcus sports medicine plus THI Oxygen helmets and togas."