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in law, unlawful demanding or receiving by an officer, in his official capacity, of any property or money not legally due to him. Examples include requesting and accepting fees in excess of those allowed to him by statute or arresting a person and, with corrupt motives, demanding money or property unlawfully under pretense of duty. The taking of money or property is generally an essential element of the crime. In most states of the United States, extortion is more widely defined to include the obtaining of money or property of another by inducing his consent through wrongful use of fear, force, or authority of office; blackmailblackmail,
in law, exaction of money from another by threat of exposure of criminal action or of disreputable conduct. The term was originally used for the tribute levied until the 18th cent.
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, ransomransom,
price of redemption demanded by the captor of a person, vessel, or city. In ancient times cities frequently paid ransom to prevent their plundering by captors. The custom of ransoming was formerly sanctioned by law.
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, and threatthreat,
in law, declaration of intent to injure another by doing an unlawful act, with a view to restraining his freedom of action. A threat is distinguishable from an assault, for an assault requires some physical act that appears likely to eventuate in violence, whereas a
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 of force are included under this definition.



in criminal law, a crime against property consisting of the demand to turn over property, or the rights to property, under threat of violence to the individual who controls or guards the property or to persons close to him, as well as under threat of making public damaging information about him or destroying the property. In this case, persons close to the owner include not only relatives but also other citizens who, threatened by violence, could influence the owner. Soviet law establishes criminal responsibility for extortion of state or societal property, as well as private property of citizens (arts. 95 and 148 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR and corresponding articles of the Criminal Codes of the other Union republics). Extortion is not covered in the codes of the Kirghiz, Uzbek, or Ukr SSR’s.

As distinct from such crimes as theft and robbery, in extortion the threat of violence is directed toward transferring property to the criminal and not toward overcoming the resistance of the victim; for this reason, when the threat of violence is made and the property is then handed over, the guilty party is responsible for both extortion and theft or extortion and robbery, depending on the nature of the violence.

The threat of exposing damaging information is called blackmail. For the crime of extortion the damaging information can be either real or false and slanderous. For example, according to the criminal codes of the Byelorussian, Kirghiz, and Tadzhik SSR’s, blackmail includes demanding property or the rights to property under the threat of exposing information that the victim wishes to keep secret. Extortion can be the means of committing some other crime, such as bribery.

Extortion of government or societal property is punished by loss of liberty for up to four years; extortion of personal property is punished by imprisonment for up to three years or corrective labor for up to one year.


References in periodicals archive ?
25 criminals were killed , 1332 criminals were arrested, 112 proclaimed offenders, 558 absconders, 11 extortionists, five police officers martyred and eight injured.
These extortionists understand that a few select IPRs can be used to manipulate stock price if the patents being challenged are key to the protection of a major product of the company.
He was an alleged extortionist and was wanted in relation to a number of criminal cases.
Interestingly, if any extortionist claimed that he was calling from inside the jail, the victim was more likely to fulfil the demand as it proved the outlaw's muscle power.
Target killers and extortionists must understand that rules of engagement for such war are different and strict, said the Prime Minister.
It is high time that the government should take serious efforts to stop this bloodshed to normalize the law and order situation and deal with criminals, drug runners and extortionists with iron hand and without any discrimination and set aside compromises.
Extortionists have found many victims will cough up $40,000 to $50,000 to make them go away.
They said JAL is suspected of making the payments for about five years until earlier this month, to buy flowers from an unnamed Tokyo-based leasing company run by corporate extortionists, known as ''sokaiya'' in Japan.
Larson, who headed prosecution of the reputed leader of the Armenian Mafia in the Los Angeles area, said extortionists have been targeting both small and large businesses in the Armenian community.
LEAs including Pakistan Rangers Sindh and Police have been urging shopkeepers and small traders to refrain from paying extortion money and assuring to provide security to their lives and businesses but keeping in view the constant threats by extortion mafia and the recent incident in Kharadar market, it appears that the perturbed shopkeepers are at the mercy of extortionists as any refusal to succumb to their demands usually results in dire consequences', they added.
According to details, the Pakistan Rangers Sindh apprehended two extortionists in a targeted raid.
I S L A M A B A D -- Neglecting the Islamabad High Court (IHC) orders, the inquiry report of Inspector General of Police (IGP) has been suppressed due to pressure of extortionists mafia.