2011 ASA/ACCF/AHA/AANN/AANS/ACR/ASNR/CNS/SAIP/SCAI/SIR/SNIS/SVM/SVS guideline on the management of patients with extracranial
carotid and vertebral artery disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, and the American Stroke Association, American Association of Neuroscience Nurses, American Association of Neurological Surgeons, American College of Radiology, American Society of Neuroradiology, Congress of Neurological Surgeons, Society of Atherosclerosis Imaging and Prevention, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Interventional Radiology, Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery, Society for Vascular Medicine, and Society for Vascular Surgery.
These data show that checkpoint inhibitors can be similarly effective in CNS metastases as they can be in extracranial
metastases related to melanoma, Samra Turajlic, MD, PhD, and James Larkin, FRCP, PhD, of the Renal and Skin Units at the Royal Marsden National Health Service Foundation Trust in London, wrote in an accompanying editorial (N Engl J Med.
Other inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) the primary disease was confirmed by pathology; (2) no sign of secondary malignancy was documented during the follow-up; (3) BM was documented by magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography with contrast; (4) extracranial
disease was evaluated at the time of BM; and (5) the medical records of post-BM therapy were complete.
A systematic review of stenting and angioplasty of symptomatic extracranial
vertebral artery stenosis.
In the literature, extracranial
meningiomas are divided into various histological types and grades, such as those with intracranial location (5,8,9).
Intracranial carotid artery disease by transcranial doppler in patients who showed extracranial
carotid artery disease.
Although the primary route of dissemination of extracranial
meningioma is poorly understood, the proposed methods of spread include the venous system, lymphatics, or the cerebrospinal fluid.
Yilmaz et al., "Extracranial
complications of chronic otitis media," Journal of International Advanced Otology, vol.
carotid artery aneurysms: Texas Heart Institute experienc.
MRI is helpful to confirm neurovascular contact when present and to exclude other causes, which may occur anywhere from the brainstem to the extracranial
Few case reports also described extracranial
presentation of moyamoya disease (6).
The first recorded reference to the involvement of the extracranial
vasculature in headache is attributed to Abu Qasim al-Zahrawi (AD 936--1013), the renowned Moorish physician (known in the West as Abucalsis or Abulcasis).