(redirected from extracranial)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Acronyms.


the European Community; see European UnionEuropean Union
(EU), name given since the ratification (Nov., 1993) of the Treaty of European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, to the European Community (EC), an economic and political confederation of European nations, and other organizations (with the same member nations)
..... Click the link for more information.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.


The country code for Ecuador.
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (


(Electronic-COMMERCE) Selling products online via the Web. Also called "e-business," "e-tailing" and "I-commerce." Although in most cases e-commerce and e-business are synonymous, e-commerce implies that goods can be purchased online, whereas e-business might be used as an umbrella term for a total presence on the Web that includes the shopping component (see shopping cart).

Electronic data interchange, in which one company's computer directly queries the inventory of, and transmits purchase orders to, another company's computer, may also be considered e-commerce (see EDI). See m-commerce, microcommerce and clicks and mortar.

The Evolution of Mail Order
In the U.S., had the dozens of mail order catalogs and businesses not flourished, perhaps e-commerce would have had a slower start. However, starting in the 1980s, people were beginning to get used to ordering products without driving to a store or shopping mall. One phone call and you were talking to a customer service rep, even day and night in some cases. Today, certain retail outlets have resorted to offering coffee and lunch bars, educational classes and other social events to entice customers to go to the physical store.

The First "Electronic" Commerce

In 1886, a telegraph operator managed to obtain a shipment of watches that had been refused by the local jeweler. Using the telegraph, he sold all the watches to fellow operators and railroad employees and then ordered more. Within a short time, he made enough money to quit his job and start his own catalog mail order business. The young man's name was Richard Sears, who founded Sears, Roebuck and Co. in 1893.
Copyright © 1981-2019 by The Computer Language Company Inc. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.
References in periodicals archive ?
2011 ASA/ACCF/AHA/AANN/AANS/ACR/ASNR/CNS/SAIP/SCAI/SIR/SNIS/SVM/SVS guideline on the management of patients with extracranial carotid and vertebral artery disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, and the American Stroke Association, American Association of Neuroscience Nurses, American Association of Neurological Surgeons, American College of Radiology, American Society of Neuroradiology, Congress of Neurological Surgeons, Society of Atherosclerosis Imaging and Prevention, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Interventional Radiology, Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery, Society for Vascular Medicine, and Society for Vascular Surgery.
These data show that checkpoint inhibitors can be similarly effective in CNS metastases as they can be in extracranial metastases related to melanoma, Samra Turajlic, MD, PhD, and James Larkin, FRCP, PhD, of the Renal and Skin Units at the Royal Marsden National Health Service Foundation Trust in London, wrote in an accompanying editorial (N Engl J Med.
Other inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) the primary disease was confirmed by pathology; (2) no sign of secondary malignancy was documented during the follow-up; (3) BM was documented by magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography with contrast; (4) extracranial disease was evaluated at the time of BM; and (5) the medical records of post-BM therapy were complete.
A systematic review of stenting and angioplasty of symptomatic extracranial vertebral artery stenosis.
In the literature, extracranial meningiomas are divided into various histological types and grades, such as those with intracranial location (5,8,9).
Intracranial carotid artery disease by transcranial doppler in patients who showed extracranial carotid artery disease.
Although the primary route of dissemination of extracranial meningioma is poorly understood, the proposed methods of spread include the venous system, lymphatics, or the cerebrospinal fluid.
Yilmaz et al., "Extracranial complications of chronic otitis media," Journal of International Advanced Otology, vol.
Extracranial carotid artery aneurysms: Texas Heart Institute experienc.
MRI is helpful to confirm neurovascular contact when present and to exclude other causes, which may occur anywhere from the brainstem to the extracranial space.
The first recorded reference to the involvement of the extracranial vasculature in headache is attributed to Abu Qasim al-Zahrawi (AD 936--1013), the renowned Moorish physician (known in the West as Abucalsis or Abulcasis).

Full browser ?