The second case was a 12-year-old male patient presenting with an extradural
spongiform-type lymphangioma at the L1-L5 level, which demonstrated an iso- and high-signal mass on T1 and T2, respectively, and irregular enhancement after Gad injection.
Lobato et al, in a Spanish study, observed incidence of 13.7%, 31.4%, and 20.2% for extradural
hematoma, brain contusions, and subdural hematoma in 277 cases of head injury20.
More than half of all reported dumbbell tumors were completely restricted to the extradural
space, although preoperative MRI suggested the presence of intradural/extradural tumors in some cases (61,62).
Mechanism of extension of spinal anaesthesia by extradural
injection of local anesthetic.
Physical and radiological findings Findings n % Skull fractures Linear fractures 25 73.5 Occipital bone 7 28.0 Temporal bone 6 24.0 Frontal bone 9 36.0 Parietal bone 3 12.0 Depressed fractures 18 52.9 Frontal bone 8 44.4 Parietal bone 4 22.2 Occipital bone 6 33.3 Basis Cranii Fractures 17 50.0 Frontobasal 7 41.2 Temporobasal 6 35.3 Occipitobasal 4 23.5 Intracranial lesion Extradural
hematoma 13 38.2 Subarachnoid hemorrhage 6 17.6 Subdural hematoma 4 11.8 Cerebral edema 8 23.5 Diffuse axonal injury 2 5.9 Pneumocephalus 13 38.2 Additional lesions Subgaleal hematoma 14 41.2 Unilateral/bilateral periorbital hematoma 7 20.6 Otorrhea 3 8.8 Otorrhagia 1 2.9 Rhinorrhea 1 2.9 Rhinorrhagia 4 11.8 Superficial scalp maceration 9 26.5 Figure 1.
Associated brain injuries like extradural
hematoma was reported in ten patients (11.1%), subdural hematoma in five patients (5.6%), involvement of venous sinuses in 5 cases (5.6%) and brain contusions in 35 cases (38.8%).
Caption: FIGURE 3: Axial T2 postinjection MRI demonstrating extradural
hydrogel sealant deposition with lefward displacement of the thecal sac and spinal cord at T10-11.
2018 Author/year Mechanism of Spinal level spinal of metastasis cord injury causing cord compression Nelson and Ruffolo Extradural
compression T9 1966  Arnold et al.
Radiographs showed decreased disc height at the T11-12 level with erosion of endplates, and MRI showed features of spondylodiscitis with an abscess at the same level and in the extradural
space (Figure 7).
have classified primary extradural
meningiomas into four types: Type I (epidural), tumor located between the dura mater and the inner calvarial table; Type II (calvarial or diploic), located between the outer and the inner calvarial table; Type III (extracranial), located outside the outer calvarial table; and Type IV (mixed), tumor extending from the dura to extracalvarial space .
In the course of WT, spinal cord compression is a very rare occurrence, usually involving skeletal metastases to the vertebral body, intradural or extradural
Spinal angiography identified a large extradural
arteriovenous fistula compressing the spinal cord at T3-T4.