Multiple attempts to record from the exumbrella
of three different animals, with either electrical or mechanical stimulation of the exumbrella
, tentacles, subumbrella, or rhopalia failed to demonstrate an exumbrellar conducting system.
Depending on the shape of the bell and the length of the oral arms, some medusae are nearly always preserved exumbrella
down (Schafer 1941; Kornicker and Conover 1960; Hertweck 1966; Bruton 1991).
Tissue pieces were dissected from small and large adult Aurelia, including pieces from the margin (including tentacles), from the more peripheral subumbrella and more central subumbrella, the exumbrella, and the manubrium.
Both FMRF-IR and tubulin-IR networks were found in the exumbrella of ephyra and medusae, although tubulin staining was less intense.
Other parts of scyphomedusae, including tentacles, manubrium, and exumbrella
, show similar double staining, with the FMRFamide-immunoreactive networks including putative sensory cells.
When making contact with a jellyfish, phyilosomas first cling onto its exumbrella
, feed on its tentacles or oral arms, and then consume the exumbrella
Nemopilema, as well as Aurelia aurita, has eight rhopalia at the margin of the exumbrella
stopping] was determined from the distance between the inner surface of the exumbrella
and the manubrium.
Bell diameter, the distance (cm) between distal ends of rhopalia on a chord bisecting a medusa lying exumbrella
surface down on the measuring table, was our Standard measurement of medusa size (Dawson 2003, 2005b, c).
A frenulum interrupts the ring of tissue of the velarium, but this interruption does not extend through to the exumbrella
smooth, without ridges or visible clusters of nematocysts.
Marginal sense organs: 8; each with two rhopaliar cones, one from exumbrella
and extending inward, one between and formed by junction of adjacent lappet borders and directed upward.