Facial Nerve

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facial nerve

[′fā·shəl ‚nərv]
(neuroscience)
The seventh cranial nerve in vertebrates; a paired composite nerve, with motor elements supplying muscles of facial expression and with sensory fibers from the taste buds of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and from other sensory endings in the anterior part of the throat.

Facial Nerve

 

(nervus facialis), the seventh pair of cranial nerves; a mixed nerve containing motor and sensory nerve fibers.

The nuclei of the facial nerve lie in the pons varolii. The conductors connected to these nuclei form the trunk of the facial nerve, which passes through the internal auditory meatus and the pyramid of the temporal bone to emerge from the cranial cavity through the stylomastoid foramen. The nerve divides into its terminal branches in the parotid gland.

The facial nerve’s motor conductors innervate the mimetic musculature, the stylohyoid muscle, the posterior venter of the digastric muscle, and the subcutaneous muscle of the neck. Its autonomic fibers innervate the salivary glands, the lacrimal glands, and the glands of the mucosae of the nasal cavity, palate, and upper pharynx. Its sensory fibers provide the gustatory innervation of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The autonomic and sensory fibers of the facial nerve in the vicinity of the brain stem form the nervus intermedius, the largest branch of which is called the chorda tympani. The most frequent pathology of the facial nerve is paralysis.

References in periodicals archive ?
blood vessels compress the Root Exit Zone (REZ) of facial nerve to damage the myelin sheath.
It was recognised that at least part of the operation in most cases would involve controlled dissection of the capsule of the tumour, where it abuts the plane of the facial nerve. Initial superficial parotidectomy, in which all branches of the facial nerve are exposed, might be necessary to facilitate the safe removal of a tumour lying deep to the plane of the facial nerve.
After identifying the facial nerve, the animals in group C were given 20% MESNA solution and those in group D were given 50% MESNA solution.
The facial nerve and its five divisions in the parotid gland could be easily identified and preserved.
The experimental model was the buccal branch of facial nerve. In the CNTF group, the facial nerve was transected and then repaired by simple epineurial suturing and CNTF was injected daily for 28 days over the left depressor labii maxillaris.
" Sometimes the facial nerves get entangled into the tumour and are damaged permanently during the attempt to excise the tumour surgically," says Dr Achtani.
The most common cause of idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell palsy) is now believed to be the reactivation of a latent neurotrophic virus (herpesvirus family) in the sensory neurons of the facial nerve. (7) Although it was first assumed that the geniculate ganglion is the location of this latent viral infection, recent neuroimaging and histopathologic evidence (8,9) places the earliest enhancement (on magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) in the fundus of the internal auditory canal (figure 3).
Wide-field parotidectomy with resection of the facial nerve and the muscles of facial expression is rarely necessary.
The mean size of the cochlear and facial nerves in normal-hearing adults with tinnitus is demonstrated in Table 2.
The pre- and postsigmoid dura was skeletonized, and the facial nerve was completely dissected throughout its intratemporal course.
The middle fossa approach to the anterosuperior surface of the petrous pyramid has been used by neurotologists to excise small acoustic neuromas, to denervate the vestibular labyrinth, and to decompress and repair the proximal intratemporal facial nerve. Other less common indications have included surgery for petrous apex lesions, facial schwannomas, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, and temporal lobe encephaloceles.
We report a new case of intracranial NMC that arose from a facial nerve at the cerebellopontine angle in a 44-year-old man.