paralysis

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paralysis

or

palsy

(pôl`zē), complete loss or impairment of the ability to use voluntary muscles, usually as the result of a disorder of the nervous system. The nervous tissue that is injured may be in the brain, the spinal cord, or in the muscles themselves. Accordingly there may be general paralysis, involvement of only one side (hemiplegia), paralysis on both sides at one level (paraplegiaparaplegia
, paralysis of the lower part of the body, commonly affecting both legs and often internal organs below the waist. When both legs and arms are affected, the condition is called quadriplegia.
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 or quadriplegia), or localized paralysis in a small group of nerves or muscles.

The cause of paralysis may be any injury that tears or compresses the nerves; it may be hemorrhage, tumor, infection, or substances toxic to nerve tissue. One of the most frequent causes of paralysis is strokestroke,
destruction of brain tissue as a result of intracerebral hemorrhage or infarction caused by thrombosis (clotting) or embolus (obstruction in a blood vessel caused by clotted blood or other foreign matter circulating in the bloodstream); formerly called apoplexy.
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, in which hemorrhage, thrombosis, or obstruction of a cerebral vessel interferes with nerve function. Another disorder in which a resting tremor is one of the main symptoms, accompanied by slowness and poverty of movement, muscular rigidity, and postural instability is Parkinson's diseaseParkinson's disease
or Parkinsonism,
degenerative brain disorder first described by the English surgeon James Parkinson in 1817. When there is no known cause, the disease usually appears after age 40 and is referred to as Parkinson's disease; a number of genes have
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. Cerebral palsycerebral palsy
, disability caused by brain damage before or during birth or in the first years, resulting in a loss of voluntary muscular control and coordination. Although the exact cause is unknown, apparent predisposing factors include disease (e.g.
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 is due to an injury to the brain motor tissue before or during birth. However, this disorder is nonprogressive. Partial or complete paralysis often accompanies multiple sclerosismultiple sclerosis
(MS), chronic, slowly progressive autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks the protective myelin sheaths that surround the nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord (a process called demyelination), resulting in damaged areas that are unable
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.

Paralysis

 

absence of voluntary movement that is due to destruction or impairment of the motor centers of the spinal cord or brain or of tracts of the central or peripheral nervous system. A distinction is made between paralysis and paresis, the latter being a condition in which motor functions are weakened but present. Both conditions may be caused by disturbances of the blood circulation, inflammation, traumata, or tumors of the nervous system. An unusual kind of paralysis occurs in hysteria. Paralyses must be distinguished from motor disorders associated with inflammation of muscles and lesions of bones and joints, which restrict the range of movement mechanically. Paralysis may affect one muscle, one extremity (monoplegia), the arm and leg on one side (hemiplegia), both arms or both legs (paraplegia), or other combinations of muscles.

Peripheral paralysis is a flaccid paralysis that involves the motor cells of the spinal cord and its anterior roots, peripheral nerves, plexuses, or nuclei of the cranial nerves. Central paralysis is a spastic paralysis that involves the brain’s central motor neurons or their outgrowths in the spinal cord.

Peripheral paralysis is characterized by the complete absence of movement, decrease in muscle tone, loss of reflexes, and muscular atrophy. Sensory disorders occur when a peripheral nerve or plexus containing both motor and sensory fibers is affected.

Central paralysis is characterized not by the complete loss of motor functions but by their dissociation—the loss of some functions and intensification of others. While voluntary movement is absent, muscle tone and tendon and periosteal reflexes increase and pathological Babinski’s, Rossolimo’s, and other reflexes appear. Associated movements (synkinesis) are observed. These are involuntary movements that occur in paralyzed extremities during voluntary movements of healthy extremities. Sensory disturbances are also observed.

Extrapyrimidal paralysis arises when the subcortical structures of the brain are affected. Associated, reflex, and voluntary movements are absent (akinesia). Muscle tone is plastic, and the extremity can move only passively.

Electromyography and other special methods of examination are important for differential diagnosis.

The prognosis and treatment are determined by the disease that caused the paralysis. Among the special methods used to restore the functions of the extremity are massage and remedial gymnastics.

REFERENCES

Krol’, M. B., and E. A. Fedorova. Osnovnye nevropatologicheskie sindromy. Moscow, 1966.
Kukuev, L. A. Struktura dvigatel’nogo analizatora. Leningrad, 1968.

V. B. GEL’FAND

What does it mean when you dream about paralysis?

Being unable to move may mean the dreamer feels helpless to control the situation at hand. Alternatively, perhaps the dreamer needs to “freeze” and do nothing about some issue for awhile.

paralysis

[pə′ral·ə·səs]
(medicine)
Complete or partial loss of motor or sensory function.

paralysis

Pathol
a. impairment or loss of voluntary muscle function or of sensation (sensory paralysis) in a part or area of the body, usually caused by a lesion or disorder of the muscles or the nerves supplying them
b. a disease characterized by such impairment or loss; palsy

Paralysis

(dreams)
Dreaming that you or someone else is paralyzed could be very frightening. Depending on the details of your dream and your current situation in life, there are several different, but equally reasonable interpretations. The fear that paralyzes you in the dream may be symbolic of the fear that you are experiencing in daily life. You may feel somewhat unable to change a current situation, which may manifest itself in your dream as a form of paralysis. In addition, this dream may be cautioning you to stay still and do nothing for now in regard to a real-life situation that is on your mind and may be problematic for you. In the dream you may be “frozen with fear” and it is up to you decipher what that fear is and what it represents.
References in periodicals archive ?
This may then provide some prognostic information and allow for early and appropriate classification of patients with symptoms of facial paralysis.
Otolaryngologists should be vigilant when counseling patients with persistent facial numbness and facial paralysis, especially when imaging examination reveals a mass in the mastoid, because this may indicate ACC.
Characteristics and prognosis of malignant external otitis with facial paralysis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2007; 133: 1002-4.
Hemanth Chopra et al in their study of 48 cases of facial paralysis found that the incidence of longitudinal fracture was 51% and transverse fracture was 19%.4 This is comparable to what was obtained in our study.
Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome is characterized by clinical triad, which is recurrent orofacial oedema, facial paralysis, and fissure on the tongue.
Facial paralysis can result in aesthetic, psychological, and functional problems.
Cutis laxa and peripheral facial paralysis can cause ectropion contributing to a worsening of the problem [7, 12, 13, 15].
The knowledge and the therapeutic possibilities of alterations associated with the MS are significantly increased in recent decades; the rehabilitation protocols of strabismus and facial paralysis are now well known and well documented [16].
However, a lower motor neuron injury of the peripheral facial nerve will result in complete ipsilateral facial paralysis, without the sparing of muscles of the upper face, which is described in Case 2 (Figure 2).
Patient's history revealed that he had suffered facial paralysis on the left side of his face many years ago.
Our study population was made up of 221 patients--131 females and 90 males, aged 14 to 79 years (mean: 49.7)--who had been referred to the Facial Nerve Disorders Clinic at our tertiary care academic medical center over a 23year period with a documented neoplastic cause of facial paralysis. In addition to demographic data, we compiled information on clinical signs and symptoms, radiologic and pathologic findings, and surgical approaches.