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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in the Roman Empire, a group of people involved in organizing equestrian contests.

The term was later transferred by scholars studying Byzantium to the sports organizations, known in Byzantine cities from the fourth century A.D., that arranged and conducted circus and sports events.

Large groups of fans, called demes, adhered to the various factions. There were usually four factions in each city, and they, like the demes, were named according to the color of the costumes worn by their charioteers: the Blues (Veneti), Greens (Prasinoi), Whites (Leukoi), and Reds (Russi). The most important were the Veneti and Prasinoi of Constantinople, who played an important political role in the fifth through seventh centuries. They lost their political importance around the middle of the seventh century and subsequently concerned themselves solely with the organization of sports competitions and festive ceremonies in Constantinople.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Regarding the development of a vision and strategy, it will not be effective and priority mustn't be placed on such issue unless the division is ended, although its existence is necessary for ending factional division.
Mama-o, who was designated by President Rodrigo Duterte to embark on a mission to seek for the release of the kidnapped Filipinos, left Tripoli shortly after a factional fighting erupted in the area.
Reform has remained as an unfinished job and this explains why such factional strife and corruption scandals broke out from time to time," he said.
Deeply divisive and contested results of 2014 elections and the National Unity Government created thereafter failed to end the factional fight for power, raising a question of legitimacy and affecting the effectiveness of the current government, the article said.
Interestingly, the Indian security forces had never tried to intervene in the Naga underground factional clashes or issues.
However, the challenges such as factional politics and timing, transparency, management, and procedure of elections appeared to have hindered the institutionalization and democratization of PTI.
In other words, senior officials in the party took advantage of formal powers of their offices to enhance their factional or informal influence.
FACTIONAL feud within various National Sports Federations ( NSFs) has often left players in a lurch, and basketball is the latest sport to feel the heat.
Both of these tasks are humanitarian and national goals that are higher than any political or factional disputes.
Police could not confirm if the killings were linked with militant violence or stemmed from factional fighting among insurgents, Angami said.
In fact, Madison lived long enough to condemn that style--what John Quincy Adams called "the millennium of the minnows." Madison's analysis of the inevitability of factional (party) politics in Federalist #10 sought to explain how the baneful effect of such politics could be moved toward the public good (a term used nine times in that paper) by enlargement of the Republic.
Jang Song Thaek faced a special military tribunal Thursday and was convicted of "anti-party, counter-revolutionary factional acts" in a bid to overthrow the communist country's leadership, the Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) reported on Friday in Pyongyang.