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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in the Roman Empire, a group of people involved in organizing equestrian contests.

The term was later transferred by scholars studying Byzantium to the sports organizations, known in Byzantine cities from the fourth century A.D., that arranged and conducted circus and sports events.

Large groups of fans, called demes, adhered to the various factions. There were usually four factions in each city, and they, like the demes, were named according to the color of the costumes worn by their charioteers: the Blues (Veneti), Greens (Prasinoi), Whites (Leukoi), and Reds (Russi). The most important were the Veneti and Prasinoi of Constantinople, who played an important political role in the fifth through seventh centuries. They lost their political importance around the middle of the seventh century and subsequently concerned themselves solely with the organization of sports competitions and festive ceremonies in Constantinople.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
This corresponds with Raymond's culture-governance-doctrine theory, which predicts such inefficiency partly because factionalism and royalism tend to weaken state authority.
"During the 2015 state conference, we ensured that factionalism at the highest level was rooted out and after three years, this time we concentrated to see that no such factionalism is there at the 14 districts and today at the end of the Thrissur conference, we have been successful to end factionalism here also."
Furthermore, the deliberate labelling of these individuals as villains of the struggle and subsequent expulsion from the party, regardless of having spent decades being regarded as heroes marks the most extreme form of action that the party has taken against any faction since the turn of the century as a result of fierce intra-party factionalism.
In the cases of both the Philippines and Indonesia, personalism within the military led to growing factionalism, and, when popular protests erupted, personalism and the dictator's direct interference in military affairs motivated unhappy senior officers to abandon the authoritarian regime and ally with disillusioned domestic civilian forces and major figures in the local opposition movement.
Smears fuel factionalism. And factionalism, which thrives through the opaque campaign system, is fertile ground for splits in the ANC, which happen around elective conferences.
Furthermore, even if Iran did still face the same internal divisions it once did, factionalism should never be used as a justification for absolving the Islamic Republic of responsibility for its crimes.
First, the probability of defection depends on the level of factionalism in the armed forces, which is conditioned by the 'institutional heritage' (p.
However, winning Assembly elections will not be easy as decades of factionalism have weakened the party organisation at grassroot level.
Also, as is common in Pakistan, perhaps no one tried to investigate the history of the Muslim League because such an endeavor would have exposed the weaknesses and factionalism in the party.
HARARE (CyHAN)- Zimbabwe's long-time President Robert Mugabe, who turns 90 on Friday, once again criticized leaders fanning factionalism in his ruling Zanu-PF party to succeed him and threatened to expel them if they continued with the bad practice.
Then she considers internal Copt affairs from perspectives of benevolence and philanthropy 1882-1945, factionalism and corruption 1882-1945, and a Coptic revolution: Harakat Al-Tathir 1952-54.
The purging of Jang, considered the second most powerful man in the North, indicated factionalism within the secretive government.