faculae


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faculae:

see photospherephotosphere,
luminous, apparently opaque layer of gases that forms the visible surface of the sun or any other star. The photosphere lies between the dense interior gases and the more attenuated gases of the chromosphere.
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faculae

(fak -yŭ-lee) (singular: facula)
1. Bright patches in the upper part of the solar photosphere that have a higher temperature than their surroundings and occur in areas where there is an enhancement of the relatively weak vertical magnetic field. With the exception of polar faculae, which consist of isolated granules and appear in high heliographic latitudes around the minimum of the sunspot cycle, they are intimately related to sunspots, forming shortly before the spots – in the same vicinity – and persisting for several weeks after their disappearance. Faculae are best seen when near the Sun's limb, where limb darkening renders them more readily visible. They are approximately coincident, albeit at a lower level, with the plages visible in monochromatic light.
2. Bright patches observed on the surface of planetary satellites, especially Ganymede.
References in periodicals archive ?
The emissivity of faculae as they approach the solar limb [135] cannot be reasonably explained within the context of the gaseous models.
Changes to the disk-integrated solar irradiance at any time are thus the net of the competing emission enhancements in all bright faculae (and plage) and emission reduction in all dark sunspots.
As seen in [section]2.3.5, strong fields can be observed in faculae and magnetic bright points, while weak fields are present above the granules ([section]2.3.4) and in coronal structures ([section] 2.3.8).
AR1530 S19/210[degrees] rounded the SE limb on July 23, a single Hsx sunspot displaying the Wilson effect and amidst an area of faculae. The group was still a single penumbral sunspot on July 25 but developed a small follower by July 27.
When sunspots and faculae all but disappeared during the low part of the last solar cycle, total solar radiation dropped by only 0.1 percent.
AR1087 N19[degrees]/334[degrees] appeared on the eastern limb on July 9 type Axx which rapidly developed to type Dso by July 10, surrounded by a large area of faculae. On the following day, small spots could be determined between the leader and follower spots with a total area estimated around 140 millionths.
Traditional white-light filters transmit less than 0.0032% of the Sun's energy, revealing in great detail dark sunspots and their surrounding penumbras as well as bright faculae in the photosphere.
AR1082 N29[degrees]/300[degrees] rounded the eastern limb as a bright region of faculae with a small forming sunspot on June 15.
All structural features associated with solar activity (sunspots, faculae, prominences, flares, spicules, etc ...) tend to be explained using magnetic fields, as the only means to impart structural features to a gaseous entity which, in reality, can support none.
Between some of the Alaska-size convection cells ("granulation") are tiny, bright walls that, when seen sideon near the limb, form bright faculae.
The group then slowly declined and was observed on Feb 17 as two Axx spots approaching the western limb and later that day as just a patch of faculae.
The faculae, on the contrary, they suppose due to volcanic eruptions from the liquified mass.

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