fallacy

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fallacy,

in logic, a term used to characterize an invalid argument. Strictly speaking, it refers only to the transition from a set of premises to a conclusion, and is distinguished from falsity, a value attributed to a single statement. The laws of syllogisms were systematically elaborated by Aristotle, and for an argument to be valid, it must adhere to all the laws; to be fallacious, it need only break one (see syllogismsyllogism,
a mode of argument that forms the core of the body of Western logical thought. Aristotle defined syllogistic logic, and his formulations were thought to be the final word in logic; they underwent only minor revisions in the subsequent 2,200 years.
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). The term fallacy has come to be used in a somewhat wider sense than the purely formal one. Informal fallacies are said to occur when statements are ambiguous or vague as to the logical form they represent, or when a multiplicity of meaning is present and the validity of the argument depends on switching meanings of a word or a phrase in midstream.

fallacy

Logic an error in reasoning that renders an argument logically invalid
References in classic literature ?
Glegg her loan of five hundred pounds, it naturally occurred to him that he had a promissory note for three hundred pounds lent to his brother-in-law Moss; and if the said brother-in-law could manage to pay in the money within a given time, it would go far to lessen the fallacious air of inconvenience which Mr.
This was small consolation, but Miss Mills wouldn't encourage fallacious hopes.
Of good and evil much they argu'd then, Of happiness and final misery, Passion and Apathie, and glory and shame, Vain wisdom all, and false Philosophie: Yet with a pleasing sorcerie could charm Pain for a while or anguish, and excite Fallacious hope, or arm th' obdured brest With stubborn patience as with triple steel.
The natural and rational gauge and measure of respectability, the commonly accepted standards being artificial, arbitrary and fallacious; for, as "Sir Sycophas Chrysolater" in the play has justly remarked, "the true use and function of property (in whatsoever it consisteth -- coins, or land, or houses, or merchant- stuff, or anything which may be named as holden of right to one's own subservience) as also of honors, titles, preferments and place, and all favor and acquaintance of persons of quality or ableness, are but to get money.
Like <IR> IRVING BABBITT </IR> , the humanist critic with whom he is often associated, More holds Rousseau responsible for romanticism, sentimental humanitarianism, illusions of progress, and a belief in the innate goodness of man, which More considers fallacious because of man's dual nature.
He informed the NIA that he was not acquainted with the subject matter referred by NIA in its notice and added that the notice was based on fallacious assumptions and misinformation solely aimed at maligning him.
His legal counsel in his response to the notice said, 'The notice (to Mirwaiz) appears to have been issued on the basis of fallacious assumptions and misinformation solely aimed at maligning the Mirwaiz-e-Kashmir, knowing his status and position, it appears to be the outcome of considerations other than the law.
The UN human rights chief last month called for an investigation into alleged abuses by Indian security forces in Kashmir -- claims that were later dismissed as "fallacious" by New Delhi.
The government of Pakistan categorically rejects Indias protest against the Azad Jammu and Kashmir Interim Constitution (13th Amendment) Act 2018 and its fallacious and baseless claim over IoK as an integral part of India," the Foreign Office (FO) said in a statement.
ISLAMABAD -- Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PMLN) and Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) while rejecting fallacious allegations of Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) have submitted their replies in Election Commission of Pakistan (ECP).
Valentine Obienyem's article is a fallacious moonlight tale of a political aide that is in a desperate search for a damage control antidote to cushion the effects of the political wound sustained by his paymaster in the last November 18th governorship election.
Summary: 'Such fallacious assertions are counterproductive and detrimental'