fallacy


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fallacy,

in logic, a term used to characterize an invalid argument. Strictly speaking, it refers only to the transition from a set of premises to a conclusion, and is distinguished from falsity, a value attributed to a single statement. The laws of syllogisms were systematically elaborated by Aristotle, and for an argument to be valid, it must adhere to all the laws; to be fallacious, it need only break one (see syllogismsyllogism,
a mode of argument that forms the core of the body of Western logical thought. Aristotle defined syllogistic logic, and his formulations were thought to be the final word in logic; they underwent only minor revisions in the subsequent 2,200 years.
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). The term fallacy has come to be used in a somewhat wider sense than the purely formal one. Informal fallacies are said to occur when statements are ambiguous or vague as to the logical form they represent, or when a multiplicity of meaning is present and the validity of the argument depends on switching meanings of a word or a phrase in midstream.

fallacy

Logic an error in reasoning that renders an argument logically invalid
References in classic literature ?
Publications: "Some Observations Upon a Series of Kalmuck Skulls"; "Outlines of Vertebrate Evolution"; and numerous papers, including "The underlying fallacy of Weissmannism," which caused heated discussion at the Zoological Congress of Vienna.
There were in all ten red Martians, men and women, and when we had briefly explained our plan they decided to join forces with us, though it was evident that it was with some considerable misgivings that they thus tempted fate by opposing an ancient superstition, even though each knew through cruel experience the fallacy of its entire fabric.
The wage bill is a fallacy of sorts, because it is part of human development, by way of growth, to go up.
This is the fallacy that has led Judith Butler, the distinguished Berkeley philosopher and a distinctly kindly person, to regard Hamas as part of the "global left.
Fallacy 1: Manufacturing jobs are the basis of American prosperity.
Synopsis: "Texan Identities: Moving beyond Myth, Memory, and Fallacy in Texas History" collaborative compiled and co-edited by Light Townsend Cummins (the Guy M.
Briggs states that an entire branch of statistics, hypothesis testing, is built around the worst fallacy, the "We-Have-To-Do-Something Fallacy"
Just like any other fallacy, the ad mortuos fallacy is deceptively convincing for many reasons:
and more, the authors move through their topics with quotes, examples, and neat wrap-ups that drive home each fallacy.
By 1811, he had sorted them into nearly 50 different types, with titles like "Attack us, you attack Government," the "No precedent argument," and the "Good in theory, bad in practice" fallacy.
Lottery ticket buyers tend to purchase tickets with numbers which have not recently won, in accordance with previous evidence of the Gambler's Fallacy in lottery sales (Clotfelter and Cook 1993; Terrell 1994).
This video explains the first fallacy in the list, the "Black & White" fallacy, otherwise known as "Either-Or" or "False Dilemma.