fallacy


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fallacy,

in logic, a term used to characterize an invalid argument. Strictly speaking, it refers only to the transition from a set of premises to a conclusion, and is distinguished from falsity, a value attributed to a single statement. The laws of syllogisms were systematically elaborated by Aristotle, and for an argument to be valid, it must adhere to all the laws; to be fallacious, it need only break one (see syllogismsyllogism,
a mode of argument that forms the core of the body of Western logical thought. Aristotle defined syllogistic logic, and his formulations were thought to be the final word in logic; they underwent only minor revisions in the subsequent 2,200 years.
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). The term fallacy has come to be used in a somewhat wider sense than the purely formal one. Informal fallacies are said to occur when statements are ambiguous or vague as to the logical form they represent, or when a multiplicity of meaning is present and the validity of the argument depends on switching meanings of a word or a phrase in midstream.
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fallacy

Logic an error in reasoning that renders an argument logically invalid
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in classic literature ?
As they drew near to the village the old men and the women began to meet them, and now a scene ensued that proved the fallacy of the old fable of Indian apathy and stoicism.
Section H, British Association'--so on, so on!--`Publications: "Some Observations Upon a Series of Kalmuck Skulls"; "Outlines of Vertebrate Evolution"; and numerous papers, including "The underlying fallacy of Weissmannism," which caused heated discussion at the Zoological Congress of Vienna.
There were in all ten red Martians, men and women, and when we had briefly explained our plan they decided to join forces with us, though it was evident that it was with some considerable misgivings that they thus tempted fate by opposing an ancient superstition, even though each knew through cruel experience the fallacy of its entire fabric.
This effect becomes a fallacy if what's pushing you to continue in the endeavour is the sunk cost.
The 'sunk-cost fallacy' refers to the irrational idea that just because one has already spent enormous resources on something non-viable, one should keep 'trying' to make it work by spending even more resources.
I share this past work with you to illustrate an ecological fallacy. What might be generally true about executive directors (i.e., they are not subject matter experts), might not be true at the individual level.
This was contained in a statement signed by the state Chairman of the group, Anthony Meraiyebu and the General Secretary, Mr Festus Akinyele, condemning the submission of Olajide, describing it as fallacy and distortion of facts.
Avoid the logical fallacy of assuming that mere chronology of events gives rise to causal correlation.
This is a clear indication that you are in a memory kludge and you allowed yourself to be a victim of the sunk cost fallacy. This is the theory that Sandeep Baliga of the Kellogg Graduate School of Management and Jeffrey Ely of Northwestern University's Department of Economics advance in their paper 'Mnemonomics: The Sunk Cost Fallacy as Memory Kludge.' The authors argue that human beings-even rational ones-have a limited capacity to remember the original reasoning behind their decisions.
The argument that one vote binds forever is a democratic fallacy and people should be very clear of that.
Antonio Trillanes IV did not apply for amnesty because his application for amnesty is missing is to commit the fallacy of argument from silence.
BANKING AND CREDIT NEWS-July 12, 2018--Finland central bank head says digital currency is a fallacy