aneurysm

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aneurysm

(ăn`yo͝orĭzəm), localized dilatation of a blood vessel, particularly an arteryartery,
blood vessel that conveys blood away from the heart. Except for the pulmonary artery, which carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs, arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues.
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, or the heartheart,
muscular organ that pumps blood to all parts of the body. The rhythmic beating of the heart is a ceaseless activity, lasting from before birth to the end of life. Anatomy and Function

The human heart is a pear-shaped structure about the size of a fist.
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. Dilatation of an artery, and therefore weakness of that portion of the arterial wall, may be rarely congenital, or it may be caused by syphilissyphilis
, contagious sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum (described by Fritz Schaudinn and Erich Hoffmann in 1905). Syphilis was not widely recognized until an epidemic in Europe at the end of the 15th cent.
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, hypertensionhypertension
or high blood pressure,
elevated blood pressure resulting from an increase in the amount of blood pumped by the heart or from increased resistance to the flow of blood through the small arterial blood vessels (arterioles).
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 (high blood pressure), arteriosclerosisarteriosclerosis
, general term for a condition characterized by thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of the blood vessels. These changes are frequently accompanied by accumulations inside the vessel walls of lipids, e.g.
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, bacterial and fungal infections, or penetrating injury as from a bullet or knife. An aneurysm may be asymptomatic or it may cause varying symptoms, depending upon its location and size and on whether the expanding mass is pressing on adjacent nerves or vital organs. The weakened arterial walls of an aneurysm are always in danger of sudden rupture, with resulting hemorrhage and death.

Aneurysms occur most commonly in the large arteries; the aortaaorta
, primary artery of the circulatory system in mammals, delivering oxygenated blood to all other arteries except those of the lungs. The human aorta, c.1 in. (2.54 cm) in diameter, originates at the left ventricle of the heart.
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, the largest vessel in the body, is the one most often affected. Ventricular aneurysms of the heart often occur after myocardial infarctionsinfarction,
blockage of blood circulation to a localized area or organ of the body resulting in tissue death. Infarctions commonly occur in the spleen, kidney, lungs, brain, and heart.
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. Aneurysms also occur in the arteries within the skull and in other areas of the body.

Aneurysms can be detected by echocardiogram, spin echo magnetic resonance imaging scans, coronary arteriograms, and biplane ventriculograms. Treatment, where feasible, may involve surgery to remove the aneurysm or the insertion of coiled wire to close it off. Coiled wire can only be used on aneurysms that are connected to the blood vessel by a narrowed neck. The coiling fills the aneurysm, obstructing the flow of blood into the dilatation, and blood clots form around the wire, preventing the aneurysm from bursting. Surgical excision of the dilated saclike portion of the affected artery sometimes requires the replacement of that portion by a synthetic graft, a section of vessel (made of polymer fiber) that is similar in size.

aneurysm

[′an·yə‚riz·əm]
(medicine)
Localized abnormal dilation of an artery due to weakening of the vessel wall.

aneurysm

, aneurism
a sac formed by abnormal dilation of the weakened wall of a blood vessel
References in periodicals archive ?
Our opinion is that adventitial cystic disease is the cause of this false aneurysm, which may be a result of (1) repeated microtrauma; (2) ectopic ganglion cyst migrating from the adjacent joint; (3) systemic myxomatous degeneration; and (4) developmental rests of mucin-secreting mesenchymal cells derived from adjacent joints and development of obliterative disease, or it can rupture and cause a pseudoaneurysm, which may have happened in our patient [8].
False aneurysm of femoral profundus artery resulting from internal-fixation device (screw).
Collins Jr., "Traumatic arteriovenous fistulas and false aneurysms: a review of 558 lesions," Surgery, vol.
I enquired with the Vascular Ward and the Acute Planning Unit if they had any empty beds because if Anna needed a Thrombin injection, she would require bed rest and monitoring after the procedure as there is a risk that the thrombus can dislodge from the false aneurysm and move into the lumen of the artery (Tortora & Grabowski, 2003).
Therapeutic embolization of false aneurysms of the superior medial genicular artery after operation of the knee: a report of two cases.
False aneurysm of the femoral artery as a late complication of an intertrochanteric fracture.
(8.) Ferretti GR, Thony F, Link KM, et al., False aneurysm of the pulmonary artery induced by a Swan-Ganz catheter: Clinical presentation and radiologic management.
Nerve compression injuries due to traumatic false aneurysm. Ann Surg.
In an exhaustive literature review combining the words tibioperoneal trunk, pseudoaneurysm, false aneurysm, and stent we only found reports of cases of patients with pseudoaneurysms of arteries of the leg and almost all were intervened with surgery.
Arteriovenous fistula with false aneurysm of the inferior medial geniculate artery: a complication of total knee arthroplasty.
* trauma causes disruption of the arterial wall, resulting in a pulsating haematoma or false aneurysm.