If a false positive
is suspected, results can be confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Although we must exercise caution when interpreting novel findings in scientific publications, we must also be vigilant not to become stifled or crippled by the fear of false positives
and end up hampering scientific progress.
Suppose now that the costs of a false negative are taken to be three times the costs of a false positive
27%) of all 166,058 oral fluid rapid HIV tests performed during March 2005-May 2008 were false positive
and demand for rapid HIV testing in NYC DOHMH STD clinics remains high, test operators and counselors have expressed a lack of confidence in oral fluid rapid HIV testing since the abrupt and sustained increase in false-positive test results during November 2007-April 2008.
However, the cost may become significant if either the pretest likelihood of the impairment is low and/or the false positive
rate is high.
Clearly, what is needed is the ability to accept as much information from sensors in real time to reduce false negatives, and then use threat-management technology to filter out the false positives
, integrate data together to track professional-grade "blended" threats, and map the output to vulnerability databases.
For example, universal screening (as opposed to targeting high-risk groups or individuals) for AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) would be futile in North America because of the preponderance of false positives
that would be generated among the entire population where AIDS is still relatively rare.
This, of course, produces more false positives
- but it also results in the detection of more actual cancers, thus saving more lives.