The focus of evaluation is to further understanding of the influence of 'family of orientation' relative to family of procreation' on the incidence of female criminal activity.
Part II: Role of Family in Crime causation: The Influence of Family of Orientation and Family of Procreation
In the context of the family of procreation, it is clearly evident, that although 50% of women prisoners were from nuclear families, 38.20% were from joint families in family of orientation.
However, in case of family of procreation majority of female prisoner's had husbands or in-laws (brother and or father) who were actively involved in anti-social activities and were also put behind the bars for some offence.
This is indicative of the strong patriarchal and conservative structure of households and suggests a correlation between the environment in the family of procreation and criminal tendencies among women.
Women prisoners and role of family of procreation in crime causation- Qualitative narratives
* Role of in-law's and family members with respect to property matters and false cases--Our jail visits highlight the legal inequities resulting from a society where most women are victims, falsely accused of property crimes actually committed by the other family members of family of procreation. From the narratives of respondents it is evident that in majority of cases women have been falsely implicated in their cases either due to revenge by the husband' or in some cases by in-laws.
* Foundational assumption--The hypothesis regarding the role of family (family of procreation) in female criminality is that 'marriage increases the possibilities of crime committed by women and therefore that family of procreation plays an important role in inducing criminal activities.
However it is not the family of orientation, it is family of procreation that accounts most for female criminality.
Spouses' Relationships With the Family of Procreation: Loyalty and Love
A husband/wife has to show loyalty and love to his/her family of procreation. Deviation from this custom brings negative reciprocity to the person (see Sahlin 1972), whereas the conforming actor is always appreciated and receives support from the relatives.
Contrary to the West, where loyalty between spouses counts more than that shown to the family of orientation or even the family of procreation, the spouses are always dependent upon their respective families in Pakistan.