famine


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famine

widespread food shortages leading to starvation and a high death rate within a given population. During a famine people die not only of hunger but from a variety of diseases to which they become increasingly vulnerable. Sen (1981) has argued that starvation arises from the condition of people not having enough to eat, and not as a result of there not being enough food to eat. Famine generally occurs when there is a sudden collapse of the level of food consumption, rather than as the result of a longterm decline, and people die because of the lack of time available to counteract the factors that lead to low consumption. It rarely occurs that a population is without any food (the Netherlands under German occupation during World War II may be one example), rather, Sen argues that it is changes in people's entitlement to food which is altered. Thus famine is linked to the distribution as well as the production of food, and the vulnerability of some groups, rather than others, within a population. Historically, famine has been precipitated by events such as serious floods or pestilence, but in the 20th-century major famines have been closely associated with warfare, as with Ethiopia and Mozambique in the 1970s and 80s, or with profound political upheavals, as with the consolidation of Stalinism in the 1930s in the USSR, and Maoism in China in the late 1950s. In all of these cases, however, only some social groups lost their entitlement to food, whilst others retained theirs or acquired new ones.
References in classic literature ?
"It is true that there were frequent famines at that time, gentlemen.
Les appels lances a la Zambie pour qu'elle declare que la situation de famine dans certaines regions du pays est une catastrophe nationale sont sans fondement, selon l'Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture (FAO).
Neither famine nor nomadism is an easy subject to research.
Rome : Record numbers in South Sudan -- some seven million people -- face acute food shortages, while more than 20,000 are close to famine, the World Food Programme (WFP) warned on Friday.
One of the worst famines in history was the Great Irish Famine.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
Anne Applebaum, Red Famine: Stalin's War on Ukraine.
Alex de Waal, Mass Starvation: the history andfuture of famine. Cambridge: Polity Press (hb 55 [pounds sterling]-978 1 5095 2466 2; pb 16.99 [pounds sterling]-978 1 5095 2467 9).
THE UN humanitarian chief has warned "there is a clear and present danger of an imminent and great big famine engulfing Yemen".
Summary: TEHRAN (FNA)- The United Nations humanitarian chief warned that Yemen is on the verge of widespread famine, with about half of the population completely relying on humanitarian aid for survival.
Alvi also directed Sindh government for taking immediate concrete measures to overcome famine.
Rather than waiting to respond to a famine after many lives already have been lost, the tech firms "will use the predictive power of data to trigger funding" to take action before it becomes a crisis, the World Bank and United Nations announced in a joint statement.