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fakir

(fäkēr`, fā`kər), [Arab.,=poverty], in Islam, usually an initiate in a Sufi order. The title fakir is borne with the understanding that poverty is the need to be in relation to God. This term, along with its Persian equivalent, dervish, was extended in Western usage to Indian ascetics and yogis, and incorrectly used generally for itinerant magicians and wonder-workers. Each Sufi order (tariqa) traces its ancestry to a mystic teacher and, beyond him, through a chain of transmission (silsila) to the Prophet Muhammad and ultimately, to God. Sufi orders began to organize in the tumultuous 12th cent. although their histories claim to emanate from the formative period of Islam, with its ecstatic and literary Sufi figures. The oldest attested extant order is probably the Qadiriyya, founded by Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (d. 1166) in Baghdad; it is currently one of the most geographically widespread. Other important orders include the Ahmadiyya (notably in Egypt); Naqshbandiyya (central and S Asia); Nimatullahiyya (Iran); Rifaiyya (Egypt, SW Asia); Shadhiliyya (N Africa, Arabia); Suhrawardiyya Chishtiyya (Asia); and Tijaniyya (Maghreb). A disciple (murid) is typically introduced to the order through an ahd, a covenant binding him to his individual teacher (shaykh, murshid, or pir) and follows an extensive regimen of initiation that might include seclusion, sleep deprivation, and fasting, with possible dispensations from the basic obligations of Islam. The religious service common to all orders is the dhikr, the "remembering" or "invocation" of God. Dhikr services vary in form: some involve heightened religious exaltations, such as the whirling of the Mawlawiyya (Mevlevis), often leading to criticism from scholastic religious leaders. The Sufi orders, by tolerating syncretisms, were instrumental in the dissemination of Islam through trans-Saharan Africa, S Asia, and SE Asia. See SufismSufism
, an umbrella term for the ascetic and mystical movements within Islam. While Sufism is said to have incorporated elements of Christian monasticism, gnosticism, and Indian mysticism, its origins are traced to forms of devotion and groups of penitents (zuhhad
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.

Bibliography

See J. S. Trimingham, The Sufi Orders in Islam (1971).

Fakir

 

(1) A Muslim mendicant dervish.

(2) In India, in addition to the word’s basic meaning, a servant in an agricultural commune who performs Muslim rituals associated with the agricultural cycle.

(3) In certain contexts, a magician, animal trainer, mindreader, or soothsayer; it is in this sense that the word became common in Europe.

(4) In the circus and on the variety stage, one who demonstrates his body’s insensitivity to physical pain—achieved through prolonged training—or performs acts of prestidigitation.

REFERENCE

Vadimov, A. A., and M. A. Trivas. Ot magov drevnosti do illiuzio-nistov nashikh dnei. Moscow, 1966.

fakir

, faqir, fakeer
1. a Muslim ascetic who rejects wordly possessions
2. a Hindu ascetic mendicant or holy man
References in periodicals archive ?
Foucault cita el influjo de la India con sus renunciantes ('sannyasin'), que es importante distinguir de los vulgares 'faquires' vulgarizadores y ostentosos, sin fondo de filosofia ni espiritualidad (Cf.
(2) Este parrafo de un periodico liberal de mediados de 1910 permite un acercamiento a los sentimientos de una parte considerable del liberalismo: "os aviso para que os espanteis, que el Jesus liberal--el Liberalismo que jamas ha muerto--; el cataleptico, se ha levantado del sepulcro que cavo nuestra Credulidad al golpe magico de la vara milagrosa de un Faquir: Rafael Uribe Uribe" (Castro, Efrain Eugenio, "Fuera del Templo mercaderes!", El Doctrinario, Cali, junio 16 de 1910, p.
Chez les dames, seize Marocaines ont deja dispute ces joutes, a savoir El Faquir (400 m haies), El Ayouni (disque), El Moutawakel (100 m, 4X100 m, 400 m haies, 4X400), El Hassania Darami (10.000 m), Fatima Aouam (1.500 m), Souad El Melloussi et Fouzia Fatihi (poids), Hasna Atallah (javelot), Zahra Ouaziz (3000 m), Nezha Bidouane (400m haies, 4X400m), Zahra Lachgar (400 m haies), Hayat Lambarki (400 m haies), Btissam Lakouad (1500m), Nisrine Dinar (perche), Hanane Ouhdou (3000m haies) et Jamaa Chnaik (saut en hauter).
Faquir added: "Under pressure from international donors, the government's tax incentive for mining and oil and gas projects has drastically reduced; today, a decision to enter project sectors in Mozambique based on tax incentives alone would not be a viable proposition."
Por lo tanto este fenomeno no necesariamente se puede adjudicar solamente a las potencias como el faquir que hipnotiza la serpiente, la serpiente en su acepcion positiva en cierta medida se ha dejado arrastrar y podemos citar ejemplos:
Gracias, mente, que, erguida en la caverna, de la testa, faquir en la era santa, engendras todo el reino abigarrado de tierra y cielo, y sostienes al sol, volantin leve en la tormenta oscura.
To justify his hatred towards the Christians he should be made a priest of a religious fanatical sect, such as a faquir, whose dogma is to hate and persecute any other belief, and who has devoted himself to celibacy, which makes his love for Selica criminal and impossible.
Anyone with any information about the robbery should contact DC Massie or DC Shahid Faquir at Solihull CID on 0845 1135000
In a separate hearing at the District Registry, Faquir Singh Chana and Jasbir Kaur Chana, of Billesley Lane, Birmingham, were disqualified for four and three years respectively, for the way in which they ran Hebana Ltd, a garment company, of Malcolm House, Moseley Road, Birmingham.
Faquir Mohammed Khan also failed a practical exam and was branded "seriously deficient" by worried medical chiefs.
* Multiple Quantum Well/Quantum Dot-Based Optical Modulators and SLMs - Faquir Jain, University of Connecticut