Fast


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fast

1. Sport (of a playing surface, running track, etc.) conducive to rapid speed, as of a ball used on it or of competitors playing or racing on it
2. Photog
a. requiring a relatively short time of exposure to produce a given density
b. permitting a short exposure time
3. Cricket (of a bowler) characteristically delivering the ball rapidly

Fast

 

a ban for a certain period of time prescribed by some religions against eating any food or certain types of food, particularly meat, fish, and dairy products. The origin of fasts is connected with restrictions dictated by the cult in the very early class societies. The roots of the practice go back to remote antiquity, when insufficient food demanded self-restrictions in eating, which acquired the form of a ban, or taboo, sanctified by custom.

In modern religions, fasting is based on the doctrine of the preeminence of the spirit over the flesh. In Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, fasting serves to reinforce the piety of the believers.

In Eastern Orthodoxy, four lengthy periods of fasting are prescribed. Lent, or the Great Fast, lasts seven weeks; St. Peter’s Fast continues from one to five weeks, depending on when Easter is observed; the Assumption fast lasts two weeks; and the Christmas fast extends over six weeks. In addition, there are one-day fasts on Wednesday and Friday of each week and on certain other days, such as the vigil of the Epiphany and Holy Cross Day. During a fast, meat and dairy foods are excluded. In all, the Eastern Orthodox Church sanctions about 200 days of fasting per year.

There are no prolonged fasts in Catholicism. Fasts are observed on Ash Wednesday, Good Friday, and the vigils of Assumption and Christmas. With the exception of the Anglican Church, obligatory fasts are unknown in Protestantism.

In Islam, the main fast is the uraza, during which, throughout the entire month of Ramadan, eating, drinking, and smoking are forbidden each day from sunrise to sunset. There also exist individual fasts, practiced in fulfillment of vows or for “redemption” with regard to violations by the believer of the precepts of the Koran and the sharia.

In Judaism, there are both public fasts, prescribed as a sign of mourning, on days of repentance, and in memory of various events in the history of the people, and individual fasts in fulfillment of a vow.

In present-day circumstances, when for the sake of strengthening the shaky position of religion various churches have modernized their dogmas and liturgies, a more flexible approach has been taken toward fasts, which are not required to be as strictly observed.

A. V. BELOV, L. I. KLIMOVICH, and M. S. BELEN’KII

fast

[fast]
(graphic arts)
A relative term given to the speed of emulsion.

FAST

(body)
Federation Against Software Theft.

FAST

(language)

Fast

An asynchronous communications protocol used to quickly transmit files over high-quality lines. Error checking is done after the entire file has been transmitted.
References in periodicals archive ?
He suggested that patients with CKD-4 and 5 must not fast, CKD-3 should not fast.
'I used to fast the whole of Ramadan, till recently when my doctors advised not to because of my age and health.
What to eat after intermittent fasting?: A common misconception that many people fall into is that food choices during non-fasting hours can vary from fast foods to sugary cravings.
It's the meal you have after ending the fast for that particular day.
It is important for Muslims to fast during Ramadan because it allows them to be devoted to their faith and to come closer to God.
According to another report that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) has said: 'Do not precede the month of Ramadan with one or two fasts.' The essence of the above-quoted ahadith is that the Holy Prophet (PBUH), himself used to fast most of the month of Sha'ban, because he had no fear of developing weakness or weariness before the commencement of Ramadan.
He added that people should listen to their doctors as they knew better who could keep fast safely.
'Studies have proved that those who fast live longer as it delays aging and extend longevity while fasting also improvise brain function, prevents the people who fast from mood disorders while it is also beneficial for the diabetics by reducing weight reducing insulin resistance', Dr Akif said.
He, however, advised diabetics to consult their physicians well before advent of Ramazan to fast safely.
completing a 16-hour fast in between (including sleeping time).
When your body fasts and your insulin drops, a fat-burning hormone called glucagon is released, causing the body to utilize alternate energy sources (such as fat stores) in the absence of glucose.
Ramadan is in the 9th lunar month of Islamic calendar in which fasting is made obligatory on Muslim adults; where they are required to refrain from food, beverages, oral drugs, medications and smoking between dawn and sunset.1,2 Duration of Ramadan fasting (RF) is variable globally according to geographic and seasonal variations from 12 to 19 hours.3 Limitation of fluid intake during fast, especially in summers, is likely to cause dehydration, hypotension, hypovolemia, increase blood viscosity,4-6 and risk of preterm labour if the fast is observed before 20 weeks.7 Exemption from fast is allowed in Holy Quran for people with illness and travellers.