Fast

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fast

1. Sport (of a playing surface, running track, etc.) conducive to rapid speed, as of a ball used on it or of competitors playing or racing on it
2. Photog
a. requiring a relatively short time of exposure to produce a given density
b. permitting a short exposure time
3. Cricket (of a bowler) characteristically delivering the ball rapidly

Fast

 

a ban for a certain period of time prescribed by some religions against eating any food or certain types of food, particularly meat, fish, and dairy products. The origin of fasts is connected with restrictions dictated by the cult in the very early class societies. The roots of the practice go back to remote antiquity, when insufficient food demanded self-restrictions in eating, which acquired the form of a ban, or taboo, sanctified by custom.

In modern religions, fasting is based on the doctrine of the preeminence of the spirit over the flesh. In Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, fasting serves to reinforce the piety of the believers.

In Eastern Orthodoxy, four lengthy periods of fasting are prescribed. Lent, or the Great Fast, lasts seven weeks; St. Peter’s Fast continues from one to five weeks, depending on when Easter is observed; the Assumption fast lasts two weeks; and the Christmas fast extends over six weeks. In addition, there are one-day fasts on Wednesday and Friday of each week and on certain other days, such as the vigil of the Epiphany and Holy Cross Day. During a fast, meat and dairy foods are excluded. In all, the Eastern Orthodox Church sanctions about 200 days of fasting per year.

There are no prolonged fasts in Catholicism. Fasts are observed on Ash Wednesday, Good Friday, and the vigils of Assumption and Christmas. With the exception of the Anglican Church, obligatory fasts are unknown in Protestantism.

In Islam, the main fast is the uraza, during which, throughout the entire month of Ramadan, eating, drinking, and smoking are forbidden each day from sunrise to sunset. There also exist individual fasts, practiced in fulfillment of vows or for “redemption” with regard to violations by the believer of the precepts of the Koran and the sharia.

In Judaism, there are both public fasts, prescribed as a sign of mourning, on days of repentance, and in memory of various events in the history of the people, and individual fasts in fulfillment of a vow.

In present-day circumstances, when for the sake of strengthening the shaky position of religion various churches have modernized their dogmas and liturgies, a more flexible approach has been taken toward fasts, which are not required to be as strictly observed.

A. V. BELOV, L. I. KLIMOVICH, and M. S. BELEN’KII

fast

[fast]
(graphic arts)
A relative term given to the speed of emulsion.

FAST

(body)
Federation Against Software Theft.

FAST

(language)

Fast

An asynchronous communications protocol used to quickly transmit files over high-quality lines. Error checking is done after the entire file has been transmitted.
References in periodicals archive ?
In fact, they're the veritable 'fat boy' of airline seats and really, really comfortable -- so much so that I did, in fact, spend most of my recent journey to Los Angeles, US, fast asleep tucked up in a fleecy blanket with a soft, fluffy pillow under my head.
With a 14 hour time difference between Beijing and US Central Time, most of the events at the Olympics will be held while US citizens are fast asleep.
95) asks what a non-sleepy child's to do when the sheep she counts are already fast asleep.
After we've eaten, I get tired and like to go bed with her at my side - but she stays up writing letters, and by the time she comes to bed I'm fast asleep.
While Renaissance artists frequently depict Ariadne bewailing her abandonment by Theseus on the island of Naxos, Giorgia de Chirico shows the princess fast asleep, just before Bacchus wings in on his chariot to rescue her.
Cancel all meetings after this one; you'll be fast asleep.
Let's all rest, To recover from our play; Off to bed, then fast asleep, Until another day.
Ilana Apelker was fast asleep in a "shelter" in her mom's bedroom closet when Hurricane Andrew struck on August 24, 1992.
He does, along the sea road with its stopped ship fast asleep.
The Atlanta Journal Constitution reported on July 11 that a man who likes to sleep in the nude was fast asleep with his wife when he saw what looked like light from a flashlight moving around outside his bedroom door.

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